- Decision Neuroscience
- Addictive Consumption
- Social Marketing
- Read the Impact article featuring research from Professor Pirouz
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Dante M. Pirouz is an Assistant Professor of Marketing at the Ivey Business School. In 2010, Professor Pirouz earned her Ph.D. from the Paul Merage School of Business at the University of California, Irvine. Previously she received a B.A. from the University of California, Los Angeles, an M.A. from the University of Pennsylvania, and an M.B.A. from the Wharton School of Business.
Professor Pirouz is interested in the "dark side" of risky consumer behaviour. She uses both neuroscience and cognitive science tools and theories to examine this important research area. Her dissertation, "The Dark Side of Product Attachment: Reactivity of Non-users and Users to Addictive Product Advertising," looks at the effect of advertising on cigarette smokers and non-smokers using brain images generated by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI).
Dante was awarded the University of California Tobacco-Related Disease Research Program Dissertation Award and a research grant from the General Clinical Research Center, College of Medicine, University of California, Irvine, with funds provided by the National Center for Research Resources, 5M01RR 00827-29, U.S. Public Health Service. She also won the 2009 Society of Consumer Psychology and the 2010 Marketing Institute Alden G. Clayton Dissertation Proposal Award. She was most recently awarded the University of California, Irvine Social Impact Award for her research.
Dante also has over 10 years of corporate experience working internationally for firms in advertising, marketing and new business development.
- Marketing Products and Services (MBA) Spring, 2011 & 2012
- Global Marketing Planning (Executive MBA) Winter, 2011 & 2012
- Global Marketing (Quantum Shift Fellows Program) Spring, 2011
- PhD, University of California, Irvine
- MBA, Wharton School of Business
- MA, University of Pennsylvania
- BA (Cum laude), University of California, Los Angeles
Recent Refereed Articles
Hurst, C, Simon, L, Jung, Y, Pirouz, DM,
(Forthcoming), "Are Bad Employees Happier Under Bad Bosses? Differing Effects of Abusive Supervision on Low and High Primary Psychopathy Employees", Journal of Business Ethics.
Abstract: Psychopathy is typically seen as a trait that is undesirable in any context, including the workplace. But several authors have suggested that people high in psychopathy might possess resources that preserve their ability to perform well in stressful contexts. We consider the possibility that primary psychopathy is adaptivefor the employee, if not for the organizationunder conditions of abusive supervision. In particular, we draw from the multimotive model of interpersonal threat (Smart Richman and Leary in Psychol Rev 116:365383, 2009) and the theory of purposeful work behavior (Barrick et al. in Acad Manag Rev 38:132153, 2013) to argue that high primary psychopathy individuals possess characteristics that enable them to experience higher levels of well-being and lower levels of anger than their peers under abusive supervisors. Based on a scenario study and a time-lagged field study, we found support for a model in which abusive supervision moderates the relationships between primary psychopathy and positive work-related outcomes (positive affect and engagement), such that these relationships are positive under conditions of abusive supervision and either diminished or negative under conditions of low abusive supervision. Abusive supervision also affected the relationship between primary psychopathy and anger in the field study such that high primary psychopathy individuals were less angry under more abusive supervisors. Thus, there appears to be some credence to the notion of a psychopathic advantage in that primary psychopaths do have access to greater psychological resources than their peers under abusive supervision. However, these findings also suggest that abusive supervisors may empower employees with characteristics that hold strong potential to damage the organization and its stakeholders.
Cross, S, Leizerovici, G, Pirouz, DM,
2018, "Hoarding: Understanding Divergent Acquisition, Consumption, and Disposal", Journal of the Association for Consumer Research 3(1).
Abstract: An accepted view of consumption assumes that consumers progress along three orderly stagesfrom acquisition to consumption, culminating with disposal of a given consumption product. When this process of consumption is disrupted, the consequences can be destabilizing, disturbing, and potentially risky to both individual consumers and the wider society. This article focuses on the divergent consumption behavior of hoarders and the impact and resulting disruptions to the processes and phases of the consumption cycle. We use a multiperspective approach in our quest to understand consumer hoarding-type behaviors. We demonstrate that hoarding behavior is not simply a matter of excessive purchasing, overconsumption, or inadequate disposal, but that there are factors affecting all three dimensions, resulting in manifestations of risky behavior. Examining the underlying motivations of consumers who hoard provides a context to explore the interplay of risks in consumption deviations, with implications for our understanding of risk and value.
Jeffrey, J, Whelan, J, Pirouz, DM, Snowdon, AW,
2016, "Boosting safety behaviour: Descriptive norms encourage child booster seat usage amongst low involvement parents", Accident Analysis and Prevention 92: 184 - 188.
Abstract: Campaigns advocating behavioural changes often employ social norms as a motivating technique, favouring injunctive norms (what is typically approved or disapproved) over descriptive norms (what is typically done). Here, we investigate an upside to including descriptive norms in health and safety appeals. Because descriptive norms are easy to process and understand, they should provide a heuristic to guide behaviour in those individuals who lack the interest or motivation to reflect on the advocated behaviour more deeply. When those descriptive norms are positive suggesting that what is done is consistent with what ought to be done including them in campaigns should be particularly beneficial at influencing this low-involvement segment. We test this proposition via research examining booster seat use amongst parents with children of booster seat age, and find that incorporating positive descriptive norms into a related campaign is particularly impactful for parents who report low involvement in the topic of booster seat safety. Descriptive norms are easy to state and easy to understand, and our research suggests that these norms resonate with low involvement individuals. As a result, we recommend incorporating descriptive norms when possible into health and safety campaigns.
Link(s) to publication:
Leonhardt, JM, Catlin, JR, Pirouz, DM,
2015, "Is Your Product Facing The Ad’s Center? Facing Direction Affects Processing Fluency And Ad Evaluation", Journal of Advertising 44(4): 315 - 325.
Abstract: The literature on social influence emphasizes that consumers are most influenced by similar others. However, in this article, the authors demonstrate that the relationship between similarity and influence depends on self-concept discrepancies. Using an adolescent sample, the results of three experiments indicate that advertisements can expose consumers to self-discrepancies and that the persuasiveness of the advertising model depends on the characteristics of the model and the distance between the actual and ideal selves of the consumer. Adolescents who were less satisfied with their actual self diverged from models who were similar, but only for advertisements that exposed them to their self-discrepancies. In this case, adolescents conformed to less similar models who were aligned with their ideal self. The authors propose an explanation based on self-discrepancy theory and discuss the advertising strategy and public policy implications.
Link(s) to publication:
Pezzuti, T, Pirouz, DM, Pechmann, C,
2015, "The Effects of Advertising Models for Age-restricted Products and Self-concept Discrepancy on Advertising Outcomes among Young Adolescents", Journal of Consumer Psychology 25(3): 519 - 529.
Abstract: Research on discrepancies between the actual self and ideal self has examined self-discrepancies in knowledge, skills and stature but age-based self-discrepancies have only recently received attention and so we studied this phenomenon in young adolescents. In three studies we identified a product-category contextual cue that apparently caused adolescents to respond to an existing age-based self-discrepancy. Specifically we found that when the contextual cue was advertising for an age-restricted product, adolescents conformed to dissimilar young adult advertising models and diverged from similar adolescent models. This indicated that the contextual cue caused them to respond to an age-based self-discrepancy and use a product associated with the ideal self rather than the actual self. Importantly, this response was stronger among adolescents that were more dissatisfied with their age. With advertising for an age-unrestricted product, adolescents conformed to adolescent advertising models and diverged from young adult models. Industry policies for age-restricted products assume that similarity drives influence and therefore mandate that advertising models be young adults rather than adolescents. Our findings suggest this assumption is invalid for age-restricted products.
Link(s) to publication:
Pirouz, DM, Johnson, AR, Thomson, M, Pirouz, R,
2015, "Creating Online Videos That Engage Viewers", Sloan Management Review (MIT) 56(4): 83 - 88.
Abstract: Most people think that cute babies and sexy bodies are what make online videos go viral. But new research shows that the key driver of engagement for online video content has less to do with what you show than how you show it. By juxtaposing content elements in incongruous combinations or by creating original or exaggerated content, an emotional connection is forged with the viewer, which in turn leads to a more engaged viewer response.
Pettigrew, S, Anderson, L, Boland, W, de La Ville, VI, Fifita, IME, Fosse-Gomez, MH, Kindt, M, Luukkanen, LAURA, Martin, I, Ozanne, LK, Pirouz, DM, Prothero, A, Stovall, T,
2014, "The Experience of Risk in Families: Conceptualisations and Implications for Transformative Consumer Research", Journal of Marketing Management 30(17-18): 1772 - 1799.
Abstract: Families represent an important context for understanding and addressing the various forms of risk experienced by consumers. This article defines and discusses the concept of risk as it applies to the familial unit, with a particular focus on the liminal transitions that occur within families and the resiliency required for families to identify and adopt effective coping strategies to manage these transitions. A framework is proposed that offers researchers an approach for applying concepts related to family risk to various consumption-related problems and issues. This framework constitutes a starting point that can be developed and expanded to facilitate a deeper understanding of the internal and external forces that influence families and their well-being, and the role consumption plays therein. Potential avenues for future transformative consumer research are proposed in this important but under-developed field.
Link(s) to publication:
Martin, I, Kamins, MA, Pirouz, DM, Davis, S, Haws, KL, Mirabito, AM, Mukherjee, S, Rapp, JM, Grover, A,
2013, "On the Road to Addiction: The Facilitative and Preventative Roles of Marketing Cues", Journal of Business Research 66(8): 1219 - 1226.
Abstract: This research broadens the focus on the addiction process by examining the role of marketing cues in the pre-addiction phase of the consumption continuum that is broadly conceptualized to include behavior that may or may not result in addiction. If addictive behavior is to occur then dependence on that behavior occurs leading to negative or harmful consequences as consumption increases over time becoming a critical component of the individual's life. Of central interest to this research are the environmental triggers that nfluence such pre-addiction consumption behaviors with a specific focus on the role marketing cues can play in facilitating and preventing the progression from non-use to addiction. We suggest that marketing cues have the potential to heavily influence the path towards and away from addiction and we identify types of cues that can impact each phase, or multiple phases, of the consumption continuum.
Link(s) to publication:
Grover, A, Kamins, MA, Martin, I, Davis, S, Haws, KL, Mirabito, AM, Mukherjee, S, Pirouz, DM, Rapp, JM,
2011, "From Use to Abuse: When Everyday Consumption Behaviours Morph Into Addictive Consumptive Behaviours", Journal of Research for Consumers (19): 1 - 8.
Abstract: Addiction does not begin with the harmful effects of being dependent on a particular consumption behaviour such as smoking, alcohol, or illegal drugs. Instead it starts with everyday seemingly benign behaviours that, through psychological, biophysical, andor environmental triggers, can become harmful and morph into an addiction. We develop a framework based on harm and dependence that can help researchers better understand how consumers could become addicted to various types of everyday benign consumption behaviours (e.g., texting, shopping, plastic surgery, and other types of normally acceptable behaviours). Furthermore, the conceptual framework is based on expanding the concept of addiction to include the pre-addiction process with a focus on this continuum of benign to harmful behavioural consumption. This framework describes how consumers progress from a normal state of consumption into a state of addictive abuse and dependence. The framework discusses key issues and future research that can aid public policy researchers, practitioners, and marketers to better understand the entire pre-addiction process.
Link(s) to publication:
Pechmann, C, Moore, E, Andreasen, A, Connell, PM, Freeman, D, Gardner, M, Heisley, D, Lefebvre, C, Pirouz, DM, Soster, R,
2011, "Navigating the Central Tensions in Research on At-Risk Consumers: Challenges and Opportunities", Journal of Public Policy & Marketing 30(1): 23 - 30.
Abstract: A perennial problem in social marketing and public policy is the plight of at-risk consumers. The authors define at-risk consumers as marketplace participants who, because of historical or personal circumstances or disabilities, may be harmed by marketers' practices or may be unable or unwilling to take full advantage of marketplace opportunities. This definition refers to either objective reality or perceptions. Early research focused on consumers who were at risk because they were poor, ethnic or racial minorities, immigrants, women, or elderly. Today's researchers also study consumers who are at risk because they are from religious minorities, disabled, illiterate, homeless, indigent, lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender. The authors identify four tensions affecting research on and policy and marketing applications for at-risk populations: the value of focusing on (1) vulnerabilities versus strengths, (2) radical versus marginal change, (3) targeting versus nontargeting, and (4) encouraging knowledgeable versus naive consumers. They conclude with a discussion of the significance of including at-risk consumers as full marketplace participants and identify future research directions.
Link(s) to publication:
Works in Progress
- Pirouz, Dante M., Cornelia (Connie) Pechmann and Paul F. Rodriguez, “Craving Resistance: An fMRI Study of Reactivity of Product Users and Non-users for an Addictive Product,” under review at Journal of Consumer Psychology, under 2nd round review.
- Pirouz, Dante M., Allison Johnson, Raymond Pirouz and Matt Thomson, “Exploding the Myth of Viral Videos and the Epic Fail: An Exploration of Why Communications Capture the Market's Imagination” under review at Journal of Marketing.
- Tithecott, Gary, M.D, Dr. Michael J. Rieder, M.D., Lorelei Lingard, Dante M. Pirouz, “Effect of Pharmaceutical Marketing on Medical Students' Education,” in preparation for submission to Journal of Medical Education - Expected submission July 2012
- Pirouz, Dante M., Cornelia (Connie) Pechmann and Tim DeWhirst, “The Abstainer's Dilemma,” in preparation for submission to Lancet - Expected submission August 2012
- Hurst, Charlice and Dante M. Pirouz, “Psychopathy and Models of Leadership and Influence” in preparation for submission to Psychological Science - Expected submission August 2012
- Pechmann, Cornelia (Connie), Dante M. Pirouz, and Todd Pezzuti, “Age Effects for Adolescents on Identification and Disidentification with Role Models,” in preparation for submission to Journal of Marketing Research. - Expected submission September 2012
- Leonhardt, Jim, Dante M. Pirouz, and Jesse Catlin, “Lateral Orientation Affects Preference, Perceived Usability and Intent to Purchase Via Processing Fluency,” in preparation for submission to Journal of Consumer Psychology. - Expected submission December 2012
- Pechmann, Cornelia (Connie), Dante M. Pirouz, Todd Pezzuti, “A Symbolic Interactionism Theory Explanation on the Effect of Referent Age on Adolescent Risk Behavior,” in preparation for submission to Journal of Consumer Research. - Expected submission January 2013
Honours & Awards
- SSHRC 4A Research Grant ($6,000) 2012
- Western University/Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry Faculty Support for Research in Education Grant ($5,000) 2012
- Auto21 Research Grant ($27,400) 2012
- Ian O. Ihnatowycz Institute for Leadership Cross Enterprise Research Grant ($8,000) 2012 - Joint grant with Charlice Hurst, For psychopathy research project
- SSHRC 4A Research Grant ($6,000) 2011
- Sheth Foundation/Academy of Marketing Science Conference Travel Grant ($1,000) 2010
- UCI Social Impact Dissertation Award - Honorable Mention ($1,000) 2010
- Marketing Science Institute Alden G. Clayton Dissertation Proposal Award ($5,000) 2010
- Society of Consumer Psychology Dissertation Proposal Award ($1,000) 2009
- UC Tobacco-Related Disease Research Program Dissertation Research Award ($30,500) 2009 - Ranked 100th percentile; Highest rated proposal reviewed, Scientific merit score = 1.48/5.00 (1.00 = outstanding)
- UCI General Clinical Research Center/National Institutes of Health Research Grant ($2,600) 2006 - 2010
- R35 Consulting, Los Angeles, CA, Principal/CFO
- DIRECTV International, Los Angeles, CA, New Business Development Manager - Asia
- Young & Rubicam Advertising, New York, NY, Senior Account Executive, International Accounts
- BMW, AG, Munich, Germany, International Marketing Manager
- Addictive consumption
- The effects of advertising on risky behavior
- The neuroscience of consumer decision making
- “A Couple of Squares,” with Raymond Pirouz, Dina Ribbink, and Emily Bendle, Ivey Publishing in development, forthcoming 2013.
- “Cargill India.,” with Chandrasekhar R, Ivey Publishing in development, forthcoming 2013.
- “InnerFocus,” with Ken Mark, Ivey Publishing in development, forthcoming 2013.
- “Mountain Equipment Co-op,” with Raymond Pirouz and Ken Mark, Ivey Publishing, in development, forthcoming 2012.
- “Salesbrain,” with Chandrasekhar R, Ivey Publishing, 9B12A005, 2012, 12 pages. - Teaching Note 8B12A005, 4 pages.
- “Porsche Cars Canada: Selling Winter Driving,” with Ken Mark, Ivey Publishing, 9B11A021, 2011, 22 pages. - Teaching Note 8B11A021, 7 pages.
- “Sushilicious: New Media Launch,” with Raymond Pirouz and Ken Mark, Ivey Publishing, 9B11A035, 2011, 19 pages. - Teaching Note 8B11A035, 5 pages.
- “Campbell's Soup: Market Research for Label Redesign,” with Chandrasekhar R, Ivey Publishing, 9B11A029, 2011, 14 pages. - Teaching Note 8B11A029, 9 pages.