Exporting Article and Book Chapter Abstracts
A Bibliography of Ivey-authored Exporting-Related Publications
As of August 23, 2017
Mudambi, R., Saranga, H., Schotter, A., 2017, "Mastering the Make-In-India Challenge", Sloan Management Review (MIT), 58(4): 59 - 66.
Abstract : India will soon be the world’s most populous country. Today, it boasts a sophisticated service sector with a highly trained, English-speaking workforce. What is less well known, is that India has also developed a large number of supplier firms in the manufacturing sector, many of which are capable of integrating into the most advanced supply chains in the world. However, India’s undoubted challenges have ensured that it is so far largely untapped by foreign multinational enterprises. Many executives still dismiss India due to insufficient scale in their target customer segments, which is needed to support more complex value-adding activities. By so doing, they perhaps miss the biggest opportunity of the coming decades. Those foreign firms that have entered India have mainly adopted one of two distinctive strategies. Some, like Unilever, have focused inward and developed capabilities for making money through low cost, locally embedded processes and products. Others, like IBM, have primarily used India as an offshore source for low cost skilled-service labor to complement global operations. Our research suggests that combining these two approaches offers the key to unlocking India’s enormous economic potential. By interweaving these two strategies, multinationals can create what we call a mutually reinforcing Make-In-India Helix that generates superior returns locally and globally. Creating the Helix involves simultaneously taking advantage of local sourcing, manufacturing, and marketing activities in conjunction with local adaptation of global products to generate mutually reinforcing advantages. The Helix enables firms to achieve local/global product-portfolio ambidexterity for reaching successfully across all of India’s income segments, while at the same time developing a springboard for global exports. The result is the necessary localization required to achieve scope and scale advantages in India, while leveraging these advantages in form of cost-effective solutions for global markets.
Holloway, I.R., 2016, "Learning via Sequential Market Entry: Evidence from International Releases of U.S. Movies", Journal of International Economics, 104: 104 - 121.
Abstract : Most U.S. movies are not distributed simultaneously to all of their foreign markets and many do not recoup the costs of market entry. In theory, sequential entry allows distributors to learn about their movies' quality from performance in successive markets. I find empirical evidence consistent with recent trade models of learning about export profitability: a one-standard-deviation increase in the update to expected box-office revenues from the previous round is associated with an increase in the probability of entry to a given market of approximately 20%. This effect is robust to controls for other potential determinants of entry, including extended gravity, seasonality of demand, and competition from local and imported pictures.
Huq, F.A., Chowdhury, I.N., Klassen, R.D., 2016, "Social Management Capabilities of Multinational Buying Firms and their Emerging Market Suppliers: An Exploratory Study of the Clothing Industry", Journal of Operations Management, 46: 19 - 37.
Keywords : Social sustainability; Supply chain; Capabilities; Clothing industry; Longitudinal case study; Stakeholder theory.
Abstract : For sustainability, research in operations and supply chain management historically emphasized the development of environmental rather than social capabilities. However, factory disasters in Bangladesh, an emerging market and the second largest clothing exporter in the world, revealed enormous challenges in the implementation of social sustainability in complex global supply chains. Against the backdrop of a building collapse in Bangladesh's clothing industry, this research uses multiple case studies from two time periods to explore the skills, practices, relationships and processes – collectively termed “social management capabilities” (SMCs) – that help buyers and suppliers respond to stakeholder pressures; address regulatory gaps; and improve social performance. The study not only captures the perspectives of both multinational buyers and their emerging market suppliers, but also provides supplementary evidence from other key stakeholders, such as NGOs and unions. Our findings show that, in the absence of intense stakeholder pressure, buyers can lay the foundation for improved social performance by using their own auditors and collaborating with suppliers rather than using third-party auditors. However, in the face of acute attention from customers, NGOs and media, we observed that consultative buyer-consortium audits emerged, and shared third-party audits offered other advantages such as increased transparency and improvements in worker education and training. Finally, we present research propositions derived from our empirical study to guide future research on implementing social sustainability in emerging markets.
Jiang, M., Branzei, O., Xia, J., 2016, "DIY: How Internationalization Shifts the Locus of Indigenous Innovation for Chinese Firms", Journal of World Business, Forthcoming.
Keywords : Knowledge; Emerging market firms; Internationalization; Indigenous innovation.
Abstract : We elaborate theories of indigenous innovation by explaining how internationalization choices help emerging market firms transition from dependence on external knowledge to self-reliance on internal knowledge. Using a 1998–2007 census dataset of Chinese manufacturing firms, we theorize and test the moderation effect of foreign equity and export orientation on the relationship between knowledge and indigenous innovation. We show that foreign equity dis-incentivizes, while export orientation incentivizes, investments in internal knowledge. We contribute by showing that internationalization choices may radically change indigenous innovation outcomes by shifting the locus of problem solving outside or inside the firm. Our study corroborates the negative direct and indirect effects of external knowledge on indigenous innovation at the firm level previously suggested by China-centric scholars but also shows how two types of internationalization choices may gradually relieve firm-level dependence on imported technology. We bridge the gap between Western research and Chinese thought and practice by introducing a do-it-yourself (DIY) explanation of how firms may implement China’s indigenous innovation (zizhu chuangxin) policy.
Holloway, I.R., 2014, "Foreign Entry, Quality, and Cultural Distance: Product-Level Evidence from U.S. Movie Exports", Review of World Economics, 150(2): 371 - 392.
Keywords : Heterogeneous quality; Cultural goods trade; Cultural affinity; F23; L82.
Abstract : This paper investigates the effect of quality on foreign entry using data on international movie exports and direct and revealed measures of movie quality. Strict quality sorting is predicted by a model of firm heterogeneity. An alternative model is random entry, in which entry decisions are independent of the movie’s quality. I develop a discrete choice model that allows for both of these extremes as special cases, and use graphical techniques and simulations to compare their predictions to the data. I then use regression analysis to estimate the effect of quality on the propensity to enter foreign markets. A one-standard-deviation increase in quality increases the probability of entry by 25–50 %. Systematic differences in taste for different genre types are used to estimate a measure of cultural distance between countries. Movies in “culturally dependent” genres are less likely to enter foreign markets and their probability of entry is less sensitive to quality. The cultural distance measure enters a gravity equation of US bilateral trade significantly.
Hessels, J., Parker, S.C., 2013, "Constraints, Internationalization and Growth: A Cross-Country Analysis of European SMEs", Journal of World Business, 48(1): 137 - 148.
Abstract : Small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) are known to face barriers which limit their ability to grow. We build on resource dependency theory and the resource-based view to investigate how SMEs are able to achieve venture growth in the face of these constraints by adopting internationalization and inter-firm collaboration strategies. Based on a large sample of European SMEs, our research demonstrates the importance of distinguishing between specific dimensions of internationalization and inter-firm collaborations, in particular between exporting and importing, and between formal and informal collaborations – as well as context-specificity of these strategies with respect to the types of constraints SMEs face.
Lee, S-H., Beamish, P.W., Lee, H-U., Park, J-H., 2009, "Strategic Choice During Economic Crisis: Domestic Market Position, Organizational Capabilities and Export Flexibility", Journal of World Business, 44(1): 1 - 15.
Keywords : Export intensity; Domestic market position; Real options; Economic crisis; Emerging economy.
Abstract : This study examines how sudden shrinkage of domestic demand affects firm-level export performance. Using the Asian economic crisis as a natural experiment, we show that while the industrial organization (IO) economics and resource based view (RBV) apply well in the pre-crisis period, the real options perspective does a better job in explaining firms' efforts to increase exports in the post-crisis period. Specifically, using a real options perspective, we show how sudden change in domestic demand provides benefits to those firms that have invested in flexible capabilities while those firms that are locked in with inflexible resources fail to change. We find that the positive relationship between a firm's domestic market position and export intensity becomes stronger in the post-crisis than the pre-crisis period. Further, we find a positive relationship between non-location bound flexible capabilities such as R&D and export intensity and a negative relationship between location bound inflexible capabilities such as advertising and export intensity. These relationships become more pronounced in the post-crisis period.
Schaufele, B., Komirenko, Z., Unterschultz, J.R., 2009, "Cow-calf Producers Should Blame Exchange Rates Not Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy for Lost Wealth", Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A, 72(17-18): 1086 - 1091.
Abstract : Several studies examined the impacts of the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) crisis on the Canadian agricultural sector. However, few investigations determined the on-farm financial repercussions arising from the crisis. This study examined impacts at farm level attributed to the BSE crisis. Cash flow and hedonic price models were used to examine changes in farm wealth for the years 2002 through 2007. While BSE received substantial media coverage, little attention was given to exchange rates and land values. Data demonstrated that exchange-rate fluctuations exerted a much greater impact on producer wealth than did the BSE crisis. Both farm equity and land values temporarily dipped following the BSE crisis but have since followed their previous trend. If the United States had not closed its borders to Canadian beef and cattle exports, producers would have an additional 0.65% growth in wealth. However, had exchange rates remained constant, farmers would have an additional 10.75% increase in equity. Consequently, the BSE crisis produced a smaller impact on farmer wealth than factors that received less media attention.
Lu, J., Beamish, P.W., 2006, "SME Internationalization and Performance: Growth vs. Profitability", Journal of International Entrepreneurship, 4(1): 27 - 48.
Keywords : FDI; Exporting; SME; Small business; International.
Abstract : Lu and Beamish (2001) examined the effect of two internationalization strategies, exporting and foreign direct investment (FDI), on SME performance (ROA). We extend this research by examining the differential effects of these strategies on two other dimensions of SME performance: growth and ROS. We develop and test four sets of hypotheses using a sample of 164 Japanese SMEs. We find that exporting activity has a positive impact on growth, but negative impact on profitability. FDI activity has a positive relationship with growth, but a U curve relationship with profitability. Exporting activity has a positive moderating effect on the relationship between an SME's FDI activity and firm growth, a negative moderating effect on the relationship between an SME's FDI activity and firm profitability. An SME's age when it starts to make FDIs has a negative moderating impact on the relationship between FDI and firm growth and profitability.
Beamish, P.W., Lee, C., 2003, "The Characteristics and Performance of Affiliates of Small and Medium-Sized Multinational Enterprises in an Emerging Market", Journal of International Entrepreneurship, 1(1): 121 - 134.
Keywords : SMEs; Emerging markets; Ownership; Control; Performance; International strategy.
Abstract : Little has been reported on the characteristics and performance of affiliates of small and medium-sized multinational enterprises (MNEs) operating in emerging markets. The paper has two research objectives: to assess characteristics of Korean affiliates of small and medium-sized MNEs, and identify the determinants of performance. Seven hypotheses were formulated and tested on a sample of Korean subsidiaries of small and medium-sized MNEs by using a bootstrap method of regression analysis. We found that: affiliates of small and medium-sized MNEs in Korea favored joint ventures with local firms rather than wholly-owned subsidiaries; ownership rate was directly related to the degree of control from the parent firm; and performance was determined significantly by the degree of control exercised by parent firms and their exporting levels. Age, size, and R&D expenditures had no relationship with the performance of affiliates of small and medium-size MNEs in Korea.
Dhanaraj, C.M., Beamish, P.W., 2003, "A Resource Based Approach to the Study of Export Performance", Journal of Small Business Management, 41(3): 242 - 261.
Keywords : RBV; Export strategy; SMEs; Export performance modeling; LISREL; Multiple group analysis; International.
Abstract : This paper presents a comparative study of the export performance of US and Canadian small and medium sized exporters. A parsimonious model is developed drawing on the resource-based theory of the firm, with three sets of resources, namely firm-size, enterprise, and technological intensity. These key resources are good predictors of the export strategy of a firm. Export strategy is modeled as degree of internationalization and its effect on the overall firm performance is studied using firm-level performance measures. LISREL's multiple group analysis feature is used in the analysis to test the model. The results confirm the validity of the model across the two data sets.
Lu, J., Beamish, P.W., 2001, “Internationalization and Performance of SMEs”, Strategic Management Journal. 22, June/July: 565-586. Reprinted in B.M. Oviatt and P.P. McDougall (Eds), International Entrepreneurship, Edward Elgar, UK, 2007.
Keywords : SMEs; Internationalization; Entrepreneurship; FDI; Exporting; Japan.
Abstract : We discuss and explore the effects of internationalization, an entrepreneurial strategy employed by small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), on firm performance. Using concepts derived from the international business and entrepreneurship literatures, we develop four hypotheses that relate the extent of foreign direct investment (FDI) and exporting activity, and the relative use of alliances, to the corporate performance of internationalizing SMEs. Using a sample of 164 Japanese SMEs to test these hypotheses, we find that the positive impact of internationalization on performance extends primarily from the extent of a firm's FDI activity. We also find evidence consistent with the perspective that firms face a liability of foreignness. When firms first initiate FDI activity, profitability declines, but greater levels of FDI are associated with higher performance. Exporting moderates the relationship FDI has with performance, as pursuing a strategy of high exporting concurrent with high FDI is less profitable than one that involves lower levels of exports when FDI levels are high. Finally, we find that alliances with partners with local knowledge can be an effective strategy to overcome the deficiencies SMEs face in resources and capabilities, when they expand into international markets.
Beamish, P.W., Karavis, L., Goerzen, A., Lane, C., 1999, "The Relationship Between Organizational Structure and Export Performance", Management International Review, 39(1): 37 - 54.
Keywords : Organizational structure; Exporting; Studies; Australia; International.
Abstract : The impact of organizational factors on the export performance of 185 medium and large-sized successful Australian exporters is examined. The study findings suggest that, after adjusting for industry and size differences, firms that make a commitment to support exports through the formation of a separate export unit within their organizations, significantly outperform firms that treat exports as just a part of their domestic business, as measured by both absolute export levels and export intensity. Furthermore, firms that structure exports around subsequent stages of internationalization achieve progressively higher overall export revenues.
Calof, J., Beamish, P.W., 1995, "Adapting to Foreign Markets: Explaining Internationalization", International Business Review, 4(2): 115 - 131.
Keywords : Internationalization; Mode change and choice; International strategy; Decision making.
Abstract : While much is known about the factors associated with the choice of an individual mode of distribution (e.g. export, sales branch, wholly owned production), we know little about why firms change modes and what explains the pattern of mode change. After interviewing 76 executives from 38 firms regarding 139 mode changes, that which best explained mode change was a modified stages model. Mode change tended to arise following changes in (A) constraints (resources or regulation) or (B) perceptions of market and mode costs and benefits. The ensuing pattern of internationalization -- whether de-investment, single step stages type investment or multi step incremental investment -- depended on the nature of the stimuli, the firm's level of resources, experience and international skills, and the extent to which attitudes changed.
Beamish, P.W., Craig, R., McLellan, K., 1993, "The Performance Characteristics of Canadian versus U.K. Exporters in Small and Medium Sized Firms", Management International Review, 33(2): 121 - 137.
Keywords : Exporting; SMEs; Performance; Distribution; Diversification; International.
Abstract : This paper compares the performance characteristics of a sample of 106 small and medium sized firms U.K. exporters with comparable data from 91 Canadian exporters. Successful export performance for firms in both countries was linked to application of business fundamentals such as customer service and the setting of planned market objectives. There were differences however. Successful U.K. export performance was related to the use of direct sales distribution, wide product offerings, long term distributor relations and a broad geographic market focus. Canadian firm's export performance was related to superior product characteristics and diversification of market focus.
Craig, R., Beamish, P.W., 1989, "A Comparison of the Characteristics of Canadian & U.K. Exporters by Firm Size", Journal of Global Marketing, 2(4): 49 - 63.
Keywords : Exporting; Diversification; Internationalization; Canada; UK.
Abstract : As part of an ongoing study aimed at investigating the determinants of successful export management, this paper compares characteristics of a new sample of 126 small, medium, and large English exporters with comparable data from 116 Canadian exporters. U.K exporters sold to more countries, had been selling longer, and had a wider product line than corresponding Canadian exporters. Canadian firms concentrated on the U.S. market, had been experiencing a greater increase in export sales, and were more likely to have greater profits in the export market than the domestic market.
Beamish, P.W., Munro, H.J., 1987, "Exporting for Success as a Small Canadian Manufacturer", Journal of Small Business and Entrepreneurship, 4(4): 38 - 43.
Keywords : Exporting; SMEs; Performance; Commitment; International.
Abstract : This paper examines the factors associated with the export performance of a 38-firm sample of small Canadian manufacturers. Two measures of export performance, intensity and relative profitability, are employed in this study. The findings suggest that on-going commitment is important for both export intensity and profitability. This commitment can be reflected in both the human resources devoted to exporting and the management of the strategy components. Small firms can also enhance their profitability through careful product-market selection. With the proper focus and commitment, small firms can profit considerable from exports.
Beamish, P.W., Munro, H.J., 1986, "The Export Performance of Small and Medium-Sized Canadian Manufacturers", Canadian Journal of Administrative Sciences, 3(1): 29 - 40.
Keywords : Export; International; Small business; SME; Canada.
Abstract : This paper examines the factors associated with the Export performance of an 86-firm sample of small and medium-sized Canadian manufacturers. Two measures of export performance, intensity and relative profitability, are employed in this study. The findings suggest that on-going commitment is important for both export intensity and profitability. This commitment can be reflected in a number of ways: human resources, market choice, and strategy components. Export profitability also tends to be linked to the domestic distribution strategy to carefully selected foreign markets.
Beamish, P.W., Goerzen, A., Munro, H.J., 1985, "The Export Characteristics of Small Canadian Manufacturers", Journal of Small Business and Entrepreneurship, 3(1): 30 - 36. Reprinted in Entrepreneurship and New Venture Management: Readings and Cases edited by Raymond W.Y. Kao and Russell M. Knight, Prentice Hall Canada, 1987: 298-303.
Keywords : Export; International; Distribution; Performance; Small business.
Abstract : As a first step in a study of ways of improving Canadian export performance, this paper examines the export characteristics of small Canadian manufacturers. Based on a 64-question mail survey of 38 exporters in the Province of Ontario, an exporter profile is developed. Particular attention is placed on the establishment and ongoing management of the distribution arrangements of these small firms.
Beamish, P.W., 1988, "A Gap in the Business Curriculum?", Canadian Business Review, The Conference Board of Canada, 15(4): 28 - 30.
Keywords : Publications; International; Education; Curricula; Business schools; Business.
Abstract : A great myth among some Canadian corporations and academic circles is that the Canadian market is so similar to that of the US that doing business with each other is not international business, but just an extension of the domestic market. Prominent Canadian chief executives observed that the US is not a homogenous market and that the business climate is more competitive and aggressive in the US. Several studies have looked at how to improve the export performance of Canadian companies. One study suggested better training in international business. Data revealed an indirect relationship between training and export performance. In the US, 118 undergraduate and 94 graduate business schools require students to take at least one international business course, but only a few Canadian schools have the requirement. Using the number of articles that academics published in international business publications as an indicator, Canadian academics were found to be at least as well qualified as Americans to provide training.
Beamish, P.W., Morrison, A.J., Inkpen, A.C., Rosenzweig, P.M., 2003, "International Management: Text and Cases, 5e", 5th, Burr Ridge, IL, McGraw Hill.
Keywords : Emerging markets.
Abstract : This is an 'international', international-management book. It looks at how firms become and remain international in scope. The book focuses on issues of international management common and important to business people 'everywhere'. It is about the experiences of firms of all sizes, from many countries and regions (North America, South America, Western Europe, Eastern Europe, Middle East, Asia, Africa, etc.), as they come to grips with an increasingly competitive global environment. It is about the practice of management when a home-market perspective is no longer enough to achieve and sustain success. Through 32 carefully selected comprehensive case studies and 15 chapters of integrated text material, this book bridges both the internationalization process and multinational management.
PART I: TEXT
4. Managing Export Operations
Part II: CASES ON INTERNATIONALIZATION
Munro, Hugh J. and Paul W. Beamish, 1987, “Distribution Methods and Export Performance: in P. Rosson and S. Reid (eds.) Managing Export Entry and Expansion: Concepts and Practice, New York, Praeger, pg. 316-331.
Abstract : This study examined the export distribution arrangements of a group of Canadian firms. It investigated the type of arrangements employed by these firms, how they managed the relationships with their foreign distribution intermediaries, and the connection between these practices and export performance. No connection was found between the type of export distribution method employed and performance level achieved. Going beyond this general analysis, however, performance was found to be better when the exporter employed similar foreign and domestic distribution arrangements, and when both exporter and foreign intermediary were more dependent upon one another. The second question concerned exporter management of the relationship with the foreign intermediary. It was found that export performance, particularly profit and intensity, was linked to such relationship management. The findings show that exporters that provide their intermediaries with a sense of direction, guidance, and support are likely to get the payback of better performance.