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Asian Management Institute


Ivey is a global leader in producing Asia-related research. This growing body of work by our internationally-recognized faculty and PhD students can be found in books and leading journals. Our research digs into the key issues that affect business and management in Asia, including cooperative strategies, leadership, and Japanese Foreign Direct Investment (JFDI).

Assisted by the Asian Management Institute, Ivey is continually adding new research on a regular basis. This effort contributes to Ivey's ranking as the top school in the world for International Strategic Management research in the past decade (Source: Journal of International Management, 2003).

Recent Publications

Trust in the Workplace: The Role of Social Interaction Diversity in the Community and in the Workplace
by Oana Branzei, Victor Cui, Vertinsky, Robinson, December 31, 2016. Business and Society

Extending the literature on social capital development in the community, this article examines the impact of diverse social interactions (in the community and the workplace) on the development of social trust in the workplace, and investigates whether their effects differ in individualistic and collectivistic cultures. Using survey data collected in Canada and China, the authors find that the diversity of one’s social interactions in the community is positively associated with one’s social trust in the workplace, and this relationship is not significantly different between the two cultures. Diversity of one’s social interactions in the workplace is also positively associated with one’s social trust in the workplace, though only in collectivistic cultures.

What’s a masculine negotiator? What’s a feminine negotiator? It depends on the cultural and situational contexts
by Lynn Imai, Wen Shan, Josh Keller, February 15, 2016. Negotiation and Conflict Management Research

Gender-related categorization is a key feature of the literature on gender in negotiation. While previous literature has typically focused on general context-free traits such as warmth and competence, we examine how people categorize specific negotiation goals and behaviors as masculine and feminine across the U.S. and China in two different negotiation contexts, thereby illustrating the role of cultural and situational context in gender-related categorization. Results from two studies (one qualitative and one quantitative) revealed that while American participants categorized competitive goals and behaviors as masculine and cooperative goals and behaviors as feminine across both business-to-consumer (B2C) and business-to-business (B2B) negotiation contexts, Chinese participants had a different pattern depending on the negotiation context. In B2C contexts, Chinese participants categorized competitive goals and behaviors as feminine and cooperative goals and behaviors as masculine. In B2B contexts, Chinese participants made further distinctions, categorizing competitive goals and behaviors that are socially inappropriate as feminine, but competitive goals and behaviors that are socially appropriate, and cooperative goals and behaviors, as masculine. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

Cultural Sensemaking in Offshore Information Technology Service Suppliers: A Cultural Frame Perspective
by Ning Su, December 15, 2015. MIS Quarterly

In today’s global IT outsourcing relationships, individual employees need to operate effectively in culturally diverse environments. Such intercultural interactions can be especially challenging for members of IT service suppliers based in offshore locations. Through an in-depth qualitative case study of one of the largest China-based IT service firms with diverse clients from Japan, the United States, and China, this research elaborates the cultural sensemaking activities of the supplier’s individual employees. Specifically, drawing on the dynamic constructivist view of culture, this study develops the construct of “cultural frames” in the context of global IT outsourcing to characterize the knowledge structures guiding an individual’s collaboration with diverse clients. A portfolio of cultural frames emerges and evolves through the individual’s cultural sensemaking activities, which consist of the iterative enactment, alignment, and retention of cultural frames. In the cultural sensemaking process, the activity of frame bridging, in particular, creates significant value for the outsourcing relationship, and is especially salient among bicultural employees.

The Dark Side of Cross-Listing: A New Perspective from China
by Walid Busaba, Lin Guo, Zhenzhen Sun, Tong Yu, August 01, 2015. Journal of Banking & Finance

An interesting phenomenon for Chinese firms that list their stock both in China and abroad is that the overwhelming majority had gone public, and listed, abroad first. We find that when these companies return to China to issue stock and list, they experience poorer post-issuance stock and operating performance in comparison to purely domestic issuers. Also, they raise more funds relative to their sales, leave less money on the table for investors, and incur lower direct flotation costs. Among returning firms, those which raise higher proceeds relative to sales experience poorer long-run stock performance and lower Tobin’s q post issuance. Our results offer a new perspective on cross-listing, which we term “dressing-up-for-premium”. Firms from less-developed markets take advantage of the enhanced visibility and prestige associated with the foreign listing to issue shares domestically at inflated prices and favorable terms, and to raise greater proceeds than they can efficiently use.

The Impact of Vicarious Experience on Foreign Location Strategy
by Paul Beamish, Guoliang Jiang, Guy Holburn, September 30, 2014. Journal of International Management

MNEs can learn from the foreign investment experiences of other firms when evaluating their own foreign entry strategies. We argue that other firms’ experiences reduce investment barriers arising from formal and informal institutional environments in host countries that are dissimilar from an MNE’s home country, thereby encouraging new entry. Our empirical analysis of foreign entries by Japanese public manufacturing firms over more than a thirty-year period indicates that the prior experiences of other firms in a host country mitigate the negative effect of formal and informal institutional distance on entry decisions: as other firms’ experiences in a host country increase, a firm is less deterred by greater institutional distance from entering the country. We also find that the distance-mitigating effect of other firms’ experiences in different industries is less significant when a larger body of same-industry firm experience exists in a country, implying a substitution effect between different types of vicarious experience.

Ivey Business School Selected Cases
by William Wei, Paul Beamish, August 01, 2014. Truth and Wisdom Press

The Effect of Host Country Long Term Orientation on Subsidiary Ownership and Survival
by Paul Beamish, George Peng, June 19, 2014. Asia Pacific Journal of Management

This paper examines the role which the long term orientation (LTO) dimension of host country culture plays in transforming multinational corporations' (MNCs') focus from transaction cost to transaction value in the context of MNC subsidiary ownership and survival. We used a sample of 10,236 overseas subsidiaries established by 1,291 Japanese MNCs in 29 host countries with varying levels of LTO to test our hypotheses. Results first showed that LTO has a direct positive effect on ownership levels. Second, we observed that there were positive interactions between LTO and cultural distance, and between LTO and geographic distance, on ownership levels. Third, we found that there were positive interactions between LTO and subsidiary ownership level, and between LTO and cultural distance, on subsidiary survival. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed in terms of the vital role LTO plays in determining whether transaction value or transaction cost considerations prevail in MNCs' ownership strategies, and how MNCs can better take advantage of host country LTO and improve the survival likelihood of their subsidiaries.

Protecting Intellectual Property in China
by Andreas Schotter, Mary Teagarden, June 19, 2014. Sloan Management Review (MIT)

Intellectual property (IP) protection is the No. 1 challenge for multinational corporations operating in China. According to the U.S. government, China accounted for nearly 80% of all IP thefts from U.S.-headquartered organizations in 2013, amounting to an estimated $300 billion in lost business. Among European manufacturers, the loss of IP in China reduced potential profits by 20%.The effects from IP leakage in China are ubiquitous. They are visible in counterfeited items including toys, luxury goods, automotive and aircraft parts, pharmaceuticals and other complex high-tech products. But IP violations go beyond products. They extend to pirated operational processes and the replication of entire business and service models. Although multinational corporations can’t afford to stay away from China, in order to remain competitive they must develop mechanisms that enable them to shift some of their innovation capabilities to China safely, without losing critical know-how. To learn about how companies are managing the China IP protection challenge, we studied more than 50 multinational corporations. We identified nine IP protection practices that can be used as a web of protection including (1) Developing strategic clarity; (2) Collecting business intelligence; (3) Following legal fundamentals; (4) Creating interest alignment; (5) Disaggregating processes; (6) Implementing a controls discipline; (7) Creating dynamism; (8) Managing human resources strategically and; (9) Engaging in focused corporate social responsibility activities. These practices allow corporations to expand faster within China and across other emerging markets while enhancing local and global innovativeness, which leads to improved performance.

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Our Researchers


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Significant Research

In the wake of backlash against Made-in-China toys in 2007, two studies done by Ivey Professor Paul Beamish and Hari Bapuji at the University of Manitoba generated significant international attention. The two studies: “Toy Recall – Is China Really the Problem?”  and “Toy Import and Recall Levels: Is There a Connection?” were published by the Asia Pacific Foundation of Canada and quoted in over 200 media outlets.

In 2008, a follow-up paper called “Toy Recalls and China: One Year Later”, again published by the Asia Pacific Foundation of Canada,  noted that the number of recalls continued to increase in 2008. However, the total number of toy units recalled appeared to decrease.