David W. Conklin is a retired professor of the business, economics and public policy area group at Ivey Business School. His courses focused on the ways in which the economic, political, social, and technological forces differ among countries throughout the world, and it analyzes business decision-making in the context of these forces. He also taught in the Economics and Political Science Departments at Western, and has been an Adjunct Professor in Social Science. Prior to joining the Ivey Business School, Conklin was employed in universities, research institutes, the civil service, small business corporations, and several government Task Forces and Royal Commissions. He earned a BA in political science and economics from the University of Toronto and a PhD in economics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
Conklin's research work focuses on the interface between corporations and public policies. This includes work for governments in the design and enforcement of legislation and regulations, as well as consulting for corporations in influencing public policies and in complying with government legislation and regulations. He has been Director, Western University Office of the Institute for Research on Public Policy, and Director of the Western University Centre for American Studies. Over the past fifteen years, he has published over 50 articles, over 100 cases and has written or edited over 30 books.
- BA, Toronto
- PhD, MIT
Recent Refereed Articles
Blaylock, D., Conklin, D.W.,
2012, "Basel III: An Evaluation of New International Banking Regulations", Journal of International Business Education 7: 27 - 46.
Abstract: The 2007/08 financial crisis and subsequent recession precipitated discussions on strengthening the stability of financial systems. A central focus have been negotiations to create an internationally consistent regulatory framework for the world’s banks. These negotiations have included improving the capital base of banks, supplementing the risk-based capital requirements with a leverage ratio, creating counter-cyclical capital buffers, introducing measures to limit counterparty risk, and establishing required liquidity ratios. However, serious gaps remain. Some nations may not agree to implement the new regulations. Non-bank financial institutions are not included. National regulations will still differ. Unintended consequences may have negative effects. Consequently, further negotiations to strengthen the world’s financial systems will likely continue.
2012, "From Kyoto to Copenhagen to Cancun to Durban to Doha: Successes and Failures in International Climate Negotiations", Journal of International Business Education 7: 65 - 76.
Abstract: The Kyoto Protocol was established in 1997, but many issues remained unresolved and many nations refused to sign. International negotiations and conferences continued, with attempts to strengthen the Protocol. The EU led the way with national emission targets, caps for major firms, and an emission trading system. Other nations pursued alternative public policies including subsidies to change consumer and corporate decisions, and initiatives aimed at specific sectors such as motor vehicles and electricity generation. Developing nations faced a dilemma in preferring to invest in stimulating economic growth. In response to this dilemma, negotiations sought to establish a program of financial assistance to help cover the costs of emission reduction in developing nations. However, by 2013 many issues remained unresolved. Businesses had to decide how best to respond to emission reduction pressures and had to decide whether their location decisions should be influenced by cost differences due to regulatory differences.
Conklin, D.W., Cadieux, D.,
2009, "China's Trade Disputes", Journal of International Business Education 4: 5 - 26.
Abstract: When China applied to join the GATT [General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade] in 1986, it was essentially a centrally planned economy with an opaque trading regime with high tariffs and a plethora of non-tariff barriers. Its main trading partners were socialist countries such as the USSR [Union of Soviet Socialist Republics] and Yugoslavia. It was not until 1992 when China declared its intention to establish a 'socialist market economy' that it began to lower tariffs. At this time China unilaterally began to make substantial tariff cuts. The reduction of tariffs during the 1990s has resulted in China being perhaps one of the most open developing countries to join the WTO [World Trade Organization] in 2001. The simple average Chinese tariff rate was reduced from 42.9% in 1992 to 16.6% in 2001. After accession, the average tariff dropped to 9.8%.
2005, "Using Countries as Cases: Designing a Course in Applied Macroeconomics", Journal of International Business Education, September 2(1).
Abstract: This article describes a course developed over the past six years in an Executive MBA program, where class discussions revolve around the study of current economic conditions in some fifty countries. For each country, a student group prepares a report that analyzes the economic issues of most importance, recommends macroeconomic policies and presents an evaluation of the growth and investment potential. The course focuses on five loosely defined regions. An introductory lecture for each region presents theoretical analyses of macroeconomic issues that are especially significant for the region as a whole, placing these in historical perspective. Then students debate the appropriate macroeconomic policies to suit the economic realities of each nation, and forecast the likely prospects for the economy. With this course design, students must have ready access to current economic information on each country for which they are developing a report, and so a School must be a subscriber to a number of databases for this course to be successful. Prior to the rapid proliferation of data sources in the Web, the design of this course may not have been possible. This article presents concepts and perspectives that can form the basis for regional introductory lectures, and it suggests some key macroeconomic issues for discussions related to particular countries.
2005, "Risks and Rewards in HR Business Process Outsourcing", Long Range Planning, December 38(6): 579 - 598.
Abstract: Managers have expressed differences of opinion about the risks and rewards of outsourcing companies' human resource activities, including the entire business process. This paper reviews the literature to date and studies the example of one of the earliest cases of outsourcing an HR business process, when EDS took on the responsibility for Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce. With the offloading of functions such as payroll and recruitment, a company's HR department can therefore concentrate on strategy and become a facilitator for change. The paper concludes with lessons that managers can apply when considering the outsourcing of HR functions.
2005, "Cross-Border Mergers and Acquisitions: A Response to Environmental Transformation", Journal of World Business, February 40(1): 29 - 40.
Abstract: This article is based on case studies of eight Canadian firms which required new strategies and resources when their business environment was transformed by globalization and technological advances. Foreign managers who had already created internationally competitive strategies placed a higher value than existing owners on assets which they could restructure in a 'strategic fit.' Canadian managers had to compare the costs, payoffs and risks of achieving requisite adjustments on their own, with the terms and conditions of cross-border mergers and acquisitions that could offer appropriate international strategies and the resources necessary to implement them. For managers, this article suggests that a cross-border merger or acquisition may be a financially attractive response to environmental transformation.
2003, "Designing a New Course: The Global Environment of Business", Journal of International Business Education, May 1(1): 145 - 164.
Abstract: Businesses confront significant differences among countries in regard to industry structures as well as economic, political, societal, and technological forces. These differences create new challenges and opportunities for a business as it extends its activities internationally. Consequently, Business Schools must deal with the question how best to develop skills in examining these differences in the business environment and in analyzing their implications for corporate strategies. This article presents a case-based course designed to achieve this objective. Cross-country comparisons add complexity to the subject matter, enrich analytical theories, and heighten the interest of students. The article discusses each section of the course, indicating issues that may be covered and summarizing cases that may be used. It also suggests literature references, web-sites and assignments. Ongoing changes in environmental forces create a need to update various teaching materials frequently. Lectures can supplement or replace cases. Students in different countries may appreciate course modifications that place greater emphasis on issues of importance to their particular region. The GEOB course design can readily accommodate such revisions and modifications.
Conklin, D.W., Robertson, D.A.,
1999, "Tax Havens: Investment Distortions and Policy Options", Canadian Public Policy 25(3): 333 - 344.
Abstract: Differences in business income tax rates among nations create the opportunity for tax minimization by diverting capital through lower tax jurisdictions. Furthermore, the opportunity to use a tax haven alters the relative rates of return between domestic and foreign investment. Financing reporting is often not sufficient to inform existing or potential stakeholders about the use of tax havens, limiting their ability to evaluate the risk of share price fluctuations in response to changes in tax regimes. For Canada, both national and international policy action is warranted in the context of these increasingly important issues.
Conklin, D.W., Lecraw, D.J.,
1997, "Restrictions on Foreign Ownership During 1984-1994: Developments and Alternative Policies", Transnational Corporations, April 6(1): 1 - 30.
Abstract: This article summarizes a study of foreign ownership restrictions in ten countries over the period 1984-1994. This decade was chosen because it was a time of remarkable liberalization. The study discusses the rationales for originally imposing ownership restrictions, why and how these rationales changed and why certain restrictions were still in place at the end of the period. The ten countries - Canada, Ghana, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Morocco, the Philippines, the Republic of Korea, Spain and Venezuela - were chosen in order to provide a wide representation of forces that influence the type, extent and evolution of the regulatory framework of foreign direct investment, as well as to illustrate a broad range of ownership restrictions and liberalization reforms. On the basis of this material, the study proposes alternative policies for achieving the objectives of foreign ownership restrictions, and offers recommendations for the reform process.
Conklin, D.W., Archibald, T.R.,
1993, "Crisis Accounting: The Role of Financial Reporting in Environmental Crisis Management", Industrial & Environmental Crisis Quarterly, July 7(4): 1 - 24.
- Management and Government Consultant
- Instructor, Canada's Foreign Service Institute, Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade (1991-2004)
- Director, Centre for American Studies, Western University (1989-1991)
- Research Co-ordinator and Director, London, Office, The Institute for Research on Public Policy (1986-1992)
- Research Director and Executive Secretary, Ontario Economic Council (1982-1985)
- Civil Service
- Business-Government Issues
- Adjustments to International Trade and Investment Agreements
- The Changing Structures and Functions of Head Offices