This module focuses on alternative cooperative strategies such as alliances, joint ventures, and mergers and acquisitions. It discusses why and how collaborative strategies change the structure of companies and industries alike. It also provides a structured and disciplined approach to the key issues involved in creating and executing collaborative strategies, as well as practical guidance to the key steps in the inter-organizational collaboration process. As organizations look to create and maintain a competitive edge in a business climate where the abilities to adapt and respond are critical to survival, managers rethink traditional organizational boundaries and business models. Emerging models emphasize co-operative strategies and relationship-based organizational structures that are highly flexible and capable of responding to rapid and sometimes radical changes in the marketplace and technology.