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International Business Institute

Cases Involving the 39 Countries

Featured Cases...

Joe Fresh: Ethical Sourcing 9B16M023
After more than 1,100 people lost their lives in the 2013 collapse of the Rana Plaza garment factory building in Bangladesh, executives of Joe Fresh, a Canadian fashion and lifestyle brand, had to respond. Along with numerous other Western retailers, Joe Fresh had sourced much of its merchandise from the Rana Plaza factory. The disaster evoked an emotional public reaction, ranging from sympathy to outrage. The clothing industry had become a critical part of Bangladesh’s economy, and this was not an isolated incident. How would the Rana Plaza incident affect the public perception of Joe Fresh, and what could the company do to improve that perception? More fundamentally, how could Joe Fresh balance its competitive position, obligations to shareholders, and customer demands with ethical sourcing?

Walton: Building a Global Brand Through Internationalization 9B16A001
By 2014, the Walton Group, an electrical goods manufacturer based in Bangladesh, sold its products in over 20 different countries. A decision to utilize the advantages of low labour costs in the company’s home country was made in the early 2000s, which led to an increase in value and permitted rapid international expansion. To achieve Walton’s mission of “Walton at every home,” the company established various specialized support units both inside and outside of Bangladesh. Government tax incentives in Bangladesh had boosted Walton’s cost competitiveness, but how else could Walton compete with other international brands to achieve is goals and become a household name worldwide?

LifeNet International's Transformation of African Healthcare via Social Franchising 9B14M131
LifeNet International was a social conversion franchise concept aiming to provide basic, quality and sustainable healthcare to poor and underserved populations in sub-Saharan Africa. The founder and president had relied on the assistance of others to help bring about his idea of affordable healthcare. In 2012, the executive director for LifeNet International’s operations in Burundi, began focussing on developing the company in Burundi. She was excited to see LifeNet International’s presence expanding into Uganda. Her vision for LifeNet International, however, was much bigger. She envisioned LifeNet International as a sustainable organization that could provide quality healthcare and medicine to millions of people around the world.

If it planned to expand internationally and bring healthcare to more of the world’s population, LifeNet International needed a solution to tie its services together to further scale, replicate and measure its social impact. How could LifeNet International bring its social conversion franchising model to other African nations and internationally? Would LifeNet International’s model work logistically, financially and culturally? What adaptations would LifeNet need to make and what legal challenges would it face in the process of expansion? Furthermore, what structures would LifeNet need to put in place to manage the complexity of its growing network of partner clinics and operations?

Ushahidi 9B14E010
As the co-founder of a software platform called Ushahidi, Ory Orykolloh watches the unfolding catastrophic earthquake crisis in Haiti and must decide how her company’s crisis-mapping software might assist international authorities as they move into Haiti to provide help and relief. Ushahidi was developed as an open-sourced mash-up platform combining Google Maps with publicly reported (text-based) incidents of election violence during the Kenya 2007 elections, and thus, the system effectively managed to bypass government censorship. Expansion into other uses during both political crises and a variety of national/international events provided opportunities for growth. Now, with Haiti, Ushahidi’s management team must consider how its software could be used to provide assistance during a catastrophe like an earthquake.

Tata Chemicals Magadi: Confronting Poverty in Rural Africa 9B15M008
In the summer of 2013, the managing director of Tata Chemicals Magadi, Africa’s largest soda ash manufacturer and one of the oldest and largest export earners in Kenya, was wondering how he was going to respond to a growing number of challenges. As a producer of a commodity product, the company was vulnerable to escalating energy costs, oversupply and economic cycles. Global growth had been sluggish since the 2008 economic recession and competition was intense, especially since the emergence of Chinese producers. Magadi Township, where the company’s production facility was located, was one of the poorest in the country, subject to droughts and without many of the basic public services typically provided by government such as roads, health care, electricity, water and education. To address these needs, the company migrated from a top-down, paternal, ad hoc and resource-intensive approach to a bottom-up, collaborative, holistic and resource-sharing style that focused on community capacity building and self-governance. However, the issue now is how to best balance the strong need to reduce costs while remaining committed to the sustainability of the surrounding community.

A Public Relations Campaign for Rwanda 9B14A035
On February 5, 2012, the founder of McDonald Kinley Emerson, a consultancy in Toronto, Canada, was asked to give a talk about country branding. She decided to focus on the efforts of Racepoint, a U.S. marketing services agency, to reshape the image of Rwanda. As it attempted to shift perceptions of the country from war-torn and chaotic, Racepoint’s campaign attracted controversy amid allegations that wrongdoings were being glossed over in favour of a tourist- and business-friendly image. In August 2011, the publication of documents outlining the contractual agreement between Racepoint and the current Rwandan government sparked scrutiny of the government’s perceived remaking of the country’s image. Can a country overcome its reputation for genocide and violence? Should countries actively use public relations tactics to change or reinforce their reputations in the same way that corporations do?

Nedbank: Transformational Leadership in Sustainable Turnaround 9B14C027
In 2013, the chief executive officer of South Africa’s fourth largest bank, the Nedbank Group Limited, is considering the past and future of his organization. The company is in the process of transformation from a low point in 2003 of poor staff morale and falling share prices, with the threat of losing its licence because of poor capital liquidity, to the best bank in Africa, winning praise for its efforts in environmental sustainability and promoting the post-Apartheid government’s broad-based black economic empowerment policy. Through acquisitions and joint ventures, the company is expanding into neighbouring countries with the result that, after a period of retrenchment, the number of branches and staff has grown. Clearly, his and his predecessor’s clear vision, measurement and focus on culture have enabled the turnaround and subsequent organizational transformation. Yet, in the midst of the global financial crisis, the company is facing increasing competition not only from other banks throughout Africa but from telecommunications companies and retailers that operate financial services. The question now is: Can these transformation efforts be sustained?

Beer for All: SABMiller in Mozambique 9B14M026
SABMiller, the world’s second largest brewer, has developed a business model in Mozambique that represents a radical departure from the firm’s traditional approach to beer production. Despite this multinational’s well-developed global supply chains and heavily centralized processes, it has disrupted both established processes and products and has, instead, innovated to produce a cassava-based beer in an effort to serve the low-income consumers who comprise the bulk of the African economic pyramid. In a marked departure from corporate best practices, the manufacturing process begins outside of the brewery and in the vicinity of the scattered and rural cassava farming plots.

EA Financial Services 9B14M042
EA Financial Services is a microfinance institution in Koforidua, Ghana. In its seven months of operation, it has done well to establish a client base, but it now lacks sufficient capital to meet the growing demand for new loans. Although having a growing client base is a positive sign, the lack of capital is a significant burden — the company has had to begin turning down loan requests. The owner knows that potential clients will likely deal with one of his many competitors if he cannot provide financial services for them. He wonders if he should first explore obtaining additional operational capital or concentrate on improving current operations. Several alternatives to addressing these issues have presented themselves. What is his best course of action?

Ethiopian Airlines: Bringing Africa Together 9B14M005
Ethiopian Airlines plans to expand its African market base to become a leading airline in the continent. As part of the airline’s multi-hub strategy, the vice-president of alliances and corporate strategy and his team must identify a suitable hub location and decide on the appropriate mode and level of ownership. Success in the first hub is essential as it will both validate the viability of the multi-hub strategy and set the tone for the establishment of subsequent hubs throughout the continent. The vice-president and his team need to resolve three issues: location of the first hub, entry mode and ownership level.

 

Ivey Publishing Cases Involving the 39 Countries

The poorest countries in the world have received little attention by business school case writers anywhere. For example, even among Ivey Publishing's current collection of over 5000 cases (the second largest business collection in the world), any of the 39 countries are referenced only 84 times and in a mere 63 cases since some of the cases deal with multiple countries and are, therefore, counted more than once.

Country

Number of Relevant Cases

Afghanistan

2

Bangladesh

8

Benin

1

Burkina Faso

1

Burundi

1

Cambodia

0

Central Africa

0

Chad

0

Comoros

0

Congo

0

Cote D'Ivoire

0

Eritrea

0

Ethiopia

1

Gambia

0

Ghana

8

Guinea

0

Guinea-Bissau

1

Haiti

5

Kenya

23

Lesotho

0

Liberia

0

Madagascar

0

Malawi

1

Mali

1

Mozambique

1

Myanmar

1

Nepal

2

Niger

1

Rwanda

4

Sao Tome and Principe

1

Senegal

1

Sierra Leone

0

Somalia

1

Tajikistan

0

Tanzania

12

Togo

0

Uganda

4

Zambia

3

Zimbabwe

0

As of September 16, 2016

9B14M057 – 13 pages
Military Arsenal Systems: Preparing to Lead a Team (A)
Lyn Purdy, Ken Mark

In March 2010, a newly promoted engineering area manager at Military Arsenal Systems, a Vancouver-based defence contractor, has just become team leader for a key program at the firm. His biggest challenge is how to lead his team, given that he is dealing with a range of personalities and the fact that he was a peer before he became their leader. How can he prove himself to be an effective leader not only to his team but to senior management? Can he rally the team quickly enough to meet the stringent deadlines for supplying the sophisticated armoured vehicles contracted by the U.S. Army for its mission in Afghanistan? See supplement 9B14M058.

9B12C009 – 18 pages
Defense Research and Development Canada – Toronto (A): The Organizational Alignment Program
Gerard Seijts, Helen Wojcinski

The world had changed as a result of the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001. Canada was engaged in the Afghanistan War, and the first casualties were being felt. It was November 28, 2005, as Rene LaRose, the director general of Defense Research and Development Canada (DRDC) Toronto, sat in his office preparing for an all-staff briefing the following day. He knew that for his research institute to remain relevant and be a major contributor to the emerging needs of the Canadian Forces and national security in this rapidly changing landscape, a major transformation of his centre was required. The Canadian Forces was undergoing its own metamorphosis under its new Chief of Defense Staff, General Rick Hillier, and DRDC Toronto needed to be in synch with this development. LaRose had spent several years trying to convey the message that profound changes at DRDC Toronto were needed — changes that were as much cultural as they were structural. The sense of urgency was now acute with Canada at war, and DRDC Toronto was poised to embark on a major organizational alignment program.

 

9B16M023 – 11 pages
Joe Fresh: Ethical Sourcing
Jaana Woiceshyn, Norman Althouse, Nigel Goodwin

After more than 1,100 people lost their lives in the 2013 collapse of the Rana Plaza garment factory building in Bangladesh, executives of Joe Fresh, a Canadian fashion and lifestyle brand, had to respond. Along with numerous other Western retailers, Joe Fresh had sourced much of its merchandise from the Rana Plaza factory. The disaster evoked an emotional public reaction, ranging from sympathy to outrage. The clothing industry had become a critical part of Bangladesh’s economy, and this was not an isolated incident. How would the Rana Plaza incident affect the public perception of Joe Fresh, and what could the company do to improve that perception? More fundamentally, how could Joe Fresh balance its competitive position, obligations to shareholders, and customer demands with ethical sourcing?

9B16A001 – 15 pages
Walton: Building a Global Brand Through Internationalization
Mohammad B. Rana, Mohammad Tarikul Islam, Nikhilesh Dholakia

By 2014, the Walton Group, an electrical goods manufacturer based in Bangladesh, sold its products in over 20 different countries. A decision to utilize the advantages of low labour costs in the company’s home country was made in the early 2000s, which led to an increase in value and permitted rapid international expansion. To achieve Walton’s mission of “Walton at every home,” the company established various specialized support units both inside and outside of Bangladesh. Government tax incentives in Bangladesh had boosted Walton’s cost competitiveness, but how else could Walton compete with other international brands to achieve is goals and become a household name worldwide?

9B15M062 – 12 pages
The Children's Place, Inc.: Challenges in a Post-Rana Plaza World
Ram Subramanian

The Children’s Place was a New Jersey-based specialty retailer of apparel and accessories for children up to age 12. Starting in fiscal 2013, the company was moving from a clearance-centre model, where it sold a variety of national brands, to a made-for-outlet model that emphasized its own brands. This was necessitated by intense price competition in its market. The new strategy involved developing, coordinating and controlling its own global apparel value chain. When the Rana Plaza building in Dhaka, Bangladesh collapsed on April 24, 2013, killing and injuring a large number of workers, products destined for The Children’s Place were found in the debris. The adverse publicity that ensued meant that the company’s top management had to re-evaluate its strategy. What should be their response?

9B09M052 – 23 pages
Baring Private Equity Partners India Limited: Banking Services for the Poor in Bangladesh
Ram Kumar Kakani, Munish Thakur

From the 1970s onward, after the emergence of microfinance, lending for the poor started shifting from informal sources (e.g. moneylenders) to formal sources. The Grameen Bank (Grameen) led this change, primarily due to its chief executive officer (CEO) and his innovative microcredit model. On the basis of the CEO's rich understanding of on-the-ground realities, he began to experiment and modify the business model for microfinance, which, in the past few years in Bangladesh, was largely dominated by a few big players. As a result of some very interesting and insightful experiments that had been conducted, the microfinance landscape was changing the way banking services were modeled for the poor, not only in Bangladesh but throughout the world. The case profiles a situation wherein Baring Private Equity Partners India, one of the largest private equity players in emerging markets, was looking to invest in the high-growth, profitable microfinance industry of South Asia. This case is oriented toward helping students understand the credit needs of the poor and their perspective on money management, hunger, investment and savings. Students should be made to appreciate how an innovative business model can be developed through a deeper understanding of the local context combined with conceptual thinking. The case strongly vouches for the development of sustainable solutions that require both financial viability and sensitivity to the conditions of the poor. The most important point to be highlighted about the microfinance landscape is that the entrepreneurship model is changing from being socially focused to being business focused. Earlier, most players entered the microfinance arena as a not-for-profit venture; however, many for-profit organizations have now entered this sector.

9B13N012 - 9 pages
Contrasting China's Yunan Model with Bangladesh's Yunus Model for Microfinance
Yuping Du, Randall O. Chang, Meng Wu, Chun Li

In 2008, about the time when the Yunus Model of microfinancing was under attack in its home country of Bangladesh, the Yunan Model was begun in rural China. The original model suffered from inefficiencies, high interest rates and allegations of improprieties against the founder, Nobel Prize winner Muhammad Yunus. By contrast, the Yunan Model relied on social capital and mechanism design theory to enlist the rural population, financial institutions and government in a cooperative effort to increase the financial stability and entrepreneurship level of one of the poorest areas of the country. Could "microfinance with Chinese characteristics" offer a plan to reduce poverty across China?

9B13M071 – 4pages
Loblaw Inc. and Rana Plaza
Michael Sider

A business professor who teaches sustainability must decide whether to sell his shares in the Canadian company, Loblaw Inc., after learning that the company produced garments for its clothing line in a Bangladeshi garment factory that collapsed, killing 1,127 workers.

9B04A030 – 17 pages
Eastern Bank Limited (A) 9B04A030
Terry H. Deutscher, Kaiser Islam

Eastern Bank Limited has taken over the Bangladesh operations of the Bank of Credit and Commerce International after its collapse. The new chief executive officer of Eastern Bank must make decisions about which corporate banking clients to target, how to develop and position the Eastern Bank brand, what products to emphasize, in what price structure and whether to centralize or decentralize the bank's operations. The supplement Eastern Bank Limited (B), product 9B04A031 updates the situation. This case provides a good vehicle for discussing relationship management in a complex service analysis of market segments and the present and future profitability, so that the marketing strategy decisions are customer driven.

9B04A031 – 3 pages
Eastern Bank Limited (B)
Terry H. Deutscher , Kaiser Islam

Eastern Bank's key financial data and the key factors in a remarkable turnaround of the bank are presented. The turnaround was achieved despite tough competition from both domestic and international banks. This is a supplement to Eastern Bank Limited (A), product 9B04A030.

9B07M025 – 17 pages
City Water Tanzania (A): Water Partnerships for Dar es Salaam
Oana Branzei, Kevin McKague

This case examines how the Tanzania government intends to address a pressing deterioration in the infrastructure and services of Dar es Salaam's Water and Sewage Authority. The decision process unfolds in the spring of 2002, on the heels of the Cochabamba uprising in Bolivia and an increasing dispute over the involvement of the International Finance Corporation and the World Bank in other water development projects in Ghana, Mauritania and South Africa. At that time, the World Bank was already sponsoring similar projects in Angola, Benin, Guinea-Bissau, Niger, Rwanda Sao Tome and Senegal, despite some vocal local opposition. This multi-part case series is ideally suited for core or elective courses in strategy and sustainability to illustrate the types of ongoing tensions and divergent decision angles that influence the formation and performance of public-private partnerships and managing in a global context. It also provides a rich and graphic account of the special threats and opportunities in the water sector - a wealth of complementary teaching resources can also stimulate larger debates by juxtaposing the case decision with a broader crisis of confidence in for-profit solutions to water and sewage provision in Africa and in Latin America.

9B14C018 – 17 pages
Sewa (A): Ela Bhatt 
Sonia Mehotra, Oana Branzei

In February 2014, a McKinsey Global Institute report proposed tracking an empowerment line that could enable India’s citizens to get out of poverty by providing the resources they needed to build better lives. This prompted Ela Bhatt, founder of the India-based Self-Employed Women’s Association, to take stock of her initiative to empower women working in India's informal sector. Since 1972, her organization has been widely acclaimed as a global first mover and active champion of grassroots development. Quickly approaching two million members in India and six neighbouring countries, and inspiring similar efforts in South Africa, Ghana, Mali and Burkina Faso, it exemplifies a unique form of positively deviant organizing by speaking to the centrality of human beings at work. Given resources, support and encouragement, its many members have used their own human agency even in the direst of circumstances to better their lives in ways most meaningful to them, for instance, by creating childcare, health care, banking, farming and education cooperatives. However, as she reaches retirement and contemplates the future, Bhatt wonders if the new generation of Indian leaders will take up the Gandhian socially minded path or follow the commercial careers opening up in the country’s multinational sector. 

9B14M131 – 11 pages
LifeNet International's Transformation of African Healthcare via Social Franchising
Ilan Alon, Raul Carril

LifeNet International was a social conversion franchise concept aiming to provide basic, quality and sustainable healthcare to poor and underserved populations in sub-Saharan Africa. The founder and president had relied on the assistance of others to help bring about his idea of affordable healthcare. In 2012, the executive director for LifeNet International’s operations in Burundi, began focussing on developing the company in Burundi. She was excited to see LifeNet International’s presence expanding into Uganda. Her vision for LifeNet International, however, was much bigger. She envisioned LifeNet International as a sustainable organization that could provide quality healthcare and medicine to millions of people around the world.

If it planned to expand internationally and bring healthcare to more of the world’s population, LifeNet International needed a solution to tie its services together to further scale, replicate and measure its social impact. How could LifeNet International bring its social conversion franchising model to other African nations and internationally? Would LifeNet International’s model work logistically, financially and culturally? What adaptations would LifeNet need to make and what legal challenges would it face in the process of expansion? Furthermore, what structures would LifeNet need to put in place to manage the complexity of its growing network of partner clinics and operations?

9B14M005 –14 pages
Ethiopian Airlines: Bringing Africa Together
Paul W. Beamish , Yamlaksira Getachew  

Ethiopian Airlines plans to expand its African market base to become a leading airline in the continent. As part of the airline’s multi-hub strategy, the vice-president of alliances and corporate strategy and his team must identify a suitable hub location and decide on the appropriate mode and level of ownership. Success in the first hub is essential as it will both validate the viability of the multi-hub strategy and set the tone for the establishment of subsequent hubs throughout the continent. The vice-president and his team need to resolve three issues: location of the first hub, entry mode and ownership level.

9B15M080 – 13 pages
UT Financial Services: Looking for the Next Mountain to Conquer
Anthony Ebow Spio, Anthony Essel-Anderson

An entrepreneur and co-founder of a private, non-deposit-taking, non-bank financial firm in Africa took his company public following a decade of phenomenal growth and strong performance. Established in an era when the traditional financial institutions would not grant credit to small and medium enterprises, the company successfully pioneered a wide variety of unique services in the non-bank financial services industry. Capitalizing on the failure of formal institutions to meet the needs of the informal sector, the entrepreneur had achieved organic growth by providing short-term loans and complementary services to customers in the neglected segment of the financial services market. The image of a high-performing company, coupled with the successful initial public offering surpassing all expectations, put tremendous pressure on the company to continue to grow the enterprise and deliver superior performance. To obtain substantial funds from the investing public, the onus is on the entrepreneur to select and pursue an appropriate strategy to keep the enterprise on a growth trajectory.

9B14C018 – 17 pages
Sewa (A): Ela Bhatt 
Sonia Mehotra, Oana Branzei

In February 2014, a McKinsey Global Institute report proposed tracking an empowerment line that could enable India’s citizens to get out of poverty by providing the resources they needed to build better lives. This prompted Ela Bhatt, founder of the India-based Self-Employed Women’s Association, to take stock of her initiative to empower women working in India's informal sector. Since 1972, her organization has been widely acclaimed as a global first mover and active champion of grassroots development. Quickly approaching two million members in India and six neighbouring countries, and inspiring similar efforts in South Africa, Ghana, Mali and Burkina Faso, it exemplifies a unique form of positively deviant organizing by speaking to the centrality of human beings at work. Given resources, support and encouragement, its many members have used their own human agency even in the direst of circumstances to better their lives in ways most meaningful to them, for instance, by creating childcare, health care, banking, farming and education cooperatives. However, as she reaches retirement and contemplates the future, Bhatt wonders if the new generation of Indian leaders will take up the Gandhian socially minded path or follow the commercial careers opening up in the country’s multinational sector. 

9B05B006 – 4 pages
Exporting to Ghana
David J. Sharp, Ken Mark

A loan assessment officer at Export Development Canada is evaluating a proposed deal involving the export of refurbished machines used in the forestry industry. He must decide whether Export Development Corporation should extend loans to a foreign firm that is interested in purchasing from a Canadian supplier. Issues include international business risk and the role of an export development agency in facilitating a country's exports.

9B13D009 – 6 pages
Bella Springs
Nicole R.D. Haggerty, Francis Ayensu, Jesse Brame, Chris Lau, Gerry Li

The founder of a water purification, packaging and distribution company in Ghana, Africa, faces some operational issues. Demand has increased for the company's water sachets, but the founder needs to develop strategies to increase the firm's current operational capacities to meet this demand. He and the operations manager need to determine how the company can position itself as a successful high-growth company in a developing and sometimes uncertain Ghanaian economy.

9B13M076 – 13 pages
Hello Healthcare: Taking a Cooperative Business into Africa
Albert Wocke

A retired Swiss banker has decided to bring primary healthcare to Africa by using a cooperative business model that brings together complementary firms. The model has proven successful in the United Arab Emirates, Zambia and Ghana. He now faces the decision of whether to expand into new African countries, and if so, which countries to enter, how to select partners and how to recruit country managers. The case also illustrates the challenges and misconceptions of doing business in Africa.

9B07M025 – 17 pages
City Water Tanzania (A): Water Partnerships for Dar es Salaam
Oana Branzei, Kevin McKague

This case examines how the Tanzania government intends to address a pressing deterioration in the infrastructure and services of Dar es Salaam's Water and Sewage Authority. The decision process unfolds in the spring of 2002, on the heels of the Cochabamba uprising in Bolivia and an increasing dispute over the involvement of the International Finance Corporation and the World Bank in other water development projects in Ghana, Mauritania and South Africa. At that time, the World Bank was already sponsoring similar projects in Angola, Benin, Guinea-Bissau, Niger, Rwanda Sao Tome and Senegal, despite some vocal local opposition. This multi-part case series is ideally suited for core or elective courses in strategy and sustainability to illustrate the types of ongoing tensions and divergent decision angles that influence the formation and performance of public-private partnerships and managing in a global context. It also provides a rich and graphic account of the special threats and opportunities in the water sector - a wealth of complementary teaching resources can also stimulate larger debates by juxtaposing the case decision with a broader crisis of confidence in for-profit solutions to water and sewage provision in Africa and in Latin America.

9B14M041 – 5 pages
Scuby’s Enterprises: Starting a Business in Ghana
Francis Ayensu , Nicole R.D. Haggerty , Julianna Faircloth , Helen Fisher , David MacNicol  

In October 2011, a young entrepreneur in Ghana faced a critical moment. Given his degree in marketing from the Ghana Institute of Management and Public Administration and his past work experience running a retail clothing store, he was confident he could branch out and start his own photocopying service in his hometown of Koforidua, where there was a distinct undersupply of photocopying services. The proposed store would be located near All Nations University, whose students and faculty would provide a stable demand for his offerings. Now he must perform a breakeven analysis and return on investment calculation to assess whether he should go forward with the venture.

9B14M042 – 9 pages
EA Financial Services
Francis Ayensu , Nicole R.D. Haggerty , Logan Burnett , Stephanie Lachance-Coward , Taylor Klimosko   

EA Financial Services is a microfinance institution in Koforidua, Ghana. In its seven months of operation, it has done well to establish a client base, but it now lacks sufficient capital to meet the growing demand for new loans. Although having a growing client base is a positive sign, the lack of capital is a significant burden — the company has had to begin turning down loan requests. The owner knows that potential clients will likely deal with one of his many competitors if he cannot provide financial services for them. He wonders if he should first explore obtaining additional operational capital or concentrate on improving current operations. Several alternatives to addressing these issues have presented themselves. What is his best course of action?

9B07M025 – 17 pages
City Water Tanzania (A): Water Partnerships for Dar es Salaam
Oana Branzei, Kevin McKague

This case examines how the Tanzania government intends to address a pressing deterioration in the infrastructure and services of Dar es Salaam's Water and Sewage Authority. The decision process unfolds in the spring of 2002, on the heels of the Cochabamba uprising in Bolivia and an increasing dispute over the involvement of the International Finance Corporation and the World Bank in other water development projects in Ghana, Mauritania and South Africa. At that time, the World Bank was already sponsoring similar projects in Angola, Benin, Guinea-Bissau, Niger, Rwanda Sao Tome and Senegal, despite some vocal local opposition. This multi-part case series is ideally suited for core or elective courses in strategy and sustainability to illustrate the types of ongoing tensions and divergent decision angles that influence the formation and performance of public-private partnerships and managing in a global context. It also provides a rich and graphic account of the special threats and opportunities in the water sector - a wealth of complementary teaching resources can also stimulate larger debates by juxtaposing the case decision with a broader crisis of confidence in for-profit solutions to water and sewage provision in Africa and in Latin America.

9B14E010 – 9 pages
Ushahidi
Nicole R.D. Haggerty, Alex Jepson

As the co-founder of a software platform called Ushahidi, Ory Orykolloh watches the unfolding catastrophic earthquake crisis in Haiti and must decide how her company’s crisis-mapping software might assist international authorities as they move into Haiti to provide help and relief. Ushahidi was developed as an open-sourced mash-up platform combining Google Maps with publicly reported (text-based) incidents of election violence during the Kenya 2007 elections, and thus, the system effectively managed to bypass government censorship. Expansion into other uses during both political crises and a variety of national/international events provided opportunities for growth. Now, with Haiti, Ushahidi’s management team must consider how its software could be used to provide assistance during a catastrophe like an earthquake.

9B01C035 – 10 pages
Kate Archer in Haiti (A)
Joerg Dietz, Kate Archer

Helped the Aged Canada, a non-profit organization, has hired Kate Archer to manage their prosthetic clinic in Haiti. After her arrival in Haiti she learns that its key employee does not meet her performance expectations. Communicating with the employee, a deaf-mute, however, was very difficult and required the use of another employee as translator. She must communicate her performance expectations to the employee. The supplement to this case, Kate Archer In Haiti (B), product number 9B01C036 describes how Kate develops a contract and finalizes the agreement with the employee.

9B12A037 – 17 pages
Foundation for International Development Assistance/Productive Cooperatives Haiti: Increasing Organizational Capacity
Colleen Sharen

Since the 2010 earthquake, the executive director of the Foundation for International Development Assistance (FIDA) had been managing exploding demand for economic development from Haitians, the international development community and from individual Canadians. While there was a lot of money available for earthquake relief and micro-finance, far less was available for sustainable long-term economic development. FIDA needed an additional $2 million over the next three years to support projects that had been approved by both FIDA and its Haitian partner, productive cooperatives Haiti (pcH). FIDA needed to find investors who understood and supported the unique vision, principles and methods of FIDA/pcH.

9B13M040 – 11 pages
KayTek: Manufacturing Housing and Livelihoods in Haiti
David Wood, Taylor Sekhon

After a massive earthquake destroyed many buildings in Haiti, reconstruction has become a source of opportunity and competition for non-governmental organizations, international business and local companies. The Haitian chairman and CEO of a very successful, multi-million dollar information technology company wants to provide affordable quality housing, especially for the disadvantaged poor, using steel frame technology from his start-up, KayTek. What he has not yet determined is how to get his product to market. He has three options: to keep sales and construction in-house, to outsource, or to franchise in order to create opportunities for young Haitian engineers to become entrepreneurs. Each option has costs, in terms not only of finances and time but also of control of brand quality and accessibility.

9B12B015 – 8 pages
Café Xaragua
Mary Heisz, Robert Lehnert

While on a visit to Haiti, a student entrepreneur realized the potential for economic development in a country that was rich in certain resources and virtually unexplored by the private sector. The entrepreneur decided on coffee as a business opportunity and he and his three partners imported their first burlap sack. By November 2011 the product was for sale - a premium coffee from Southeastern Haiti with a brand focused on assisting the redevelopment and sustainability of the Haitian coffee industry. After the product met success, the entrepreneur and his partners were ready to make an additional investment. They believed that a café focused on their own brand of Haitian coffee would be a great way to generate sales and further develop their product offering before pursuing a grocery-store strategy. However, they also knew that such an investment would be risky.

9B15A012 – 7 pages
Enhancing Competitive Strategy at Darling Kenya
Pamela Odhiambo, Nicole R.D. Haggerty, Ali Kanji, Brandon Swartz

In September 2013, the managing director of Darling Kenya, a hair care product company headquartered in Nairobi, was pondering his next move. As a leader in the beauty hair care industry in Africa, the company needed to stay a step ahead of increasing competition from both local and multinational firms. With limited room to grow in the industry, he was looking at a set of alternatives to protect Darling’s brand from losing market share. Which option would benefit the company the most: exploring new advertising channels, especially on the Internet and in social media; reinvigorating the brand with new packaging and higher quality; or entering the rural market through road shows?

9B14E010 – 9 pages
Ushahidi
Nicole R.D. Haggerty, Alex Jepson

As the co-founder of a software platform called Ushahidi, Ory Orykolloh watches the unfolding catastrophic earthquake crisis in Haiti and must decide how her company’s crisis-mapping software might assist international authorities as they move into Haiti to provide help and relief. Ushahidi was developed as an open-sourced mash-up platform combining Google Maps with publicly reported (text-based) incidents of election violence during the Kenya 2007 elections, and thus, the system effectively managed to bypass government censorship. Expansion into other uses during both political crises and a variety of national/international events provided opportunities for growth. Now, with Haiti, Ushahidi’s management team must consider how its software could be used to provide assistance during a catastrophe like an earthquake.

9B15M008 – 11 pages
Tata Chemicals Magadi: Confronting Poverty in Rural Africa
Michael Valente

In the summer of 2013, the managing director of Tata Chemicals Magadi, Africa’s largest soda ash manufacturer and one of the oldest and largest export earners in Kenya, was wondering how he was going to respond to a growing number of challenges. As a producer of a commodity product, the company was vulnerable to escalating energy costs, oversupply and economic cycles. Global growth had been sluggish since the 2008 economic recession and competition was intense, especially since the emergence of Chinese producers. Magadi Township, where the company’s production facility was located, was one of the poorest in the country, subject to droughts and without many of the basic public services typically provided by government such as roads, health care, electricity, water and education. To address these needs, the company migrated from a top-down, paternal, ad hoc and resource-intensive approach to a bottom-up, collaborative, holistic and resource-sharing style that focused on community capacity building and self-governance. However, the issue now is how to best balance the strong need to reduce costs while remaining committed to the sustainability of the surrounding community.

9B08M059 – 16 pages
Microfinance and the Kipsigis of Southwest Kenya
Glenn Brophey, Robin Wiszowaty

A group of business students and their professor travel to rural Kenya to work with Free The Children (FTC), an in-situ, non-governmental organization (NGO) that is focused on generational social change through education for children. This Canadian NGO has had considerable success in meeting this original objective and now sees health care and economic development concerns as being the next barriers to expansion of its educational thrust for the local population. The business group has focused on microcredit for hardcore poor mothers (mommas) as a means to economic development, as this approach has proven successful with similar populations in other parts of the world. At the level of the momma, the charitable NGO is considering loans or grants to implement some joint liability financing. The business students have been asked to gather the data, consider the implications of their analysis and make a recommendation as to which financial structure will be more effective to the NGO's management group within Kenya. The students also have been asked to create an action plan for implementation of their recommendation that considers the broader context of the organization's overall activities in Kenya.

9B09M051 – 22 pages
Yogurt Mamas: Probiotics in Tanzania 
Oana Branzei, David J. Sharp, Jessica Kelly, Osama Siddiqui

This case illustrates a grassroots enterprise's path to self-sufficiency in a subsistence market context. It explores the gradual evolution of a business model with strong social mandates (pro-health, pro-women) and asks which growth options best marry profitability and positive social change. The Mwanza, Tanzania-based Yogurt Mamas emerge as entrepreneurial role models in their communities, with funds from Western donors and an exciting new technology.

The Yogurt Mamas produce and locally distribute a probiotic yogurt to their small community; they are interconnected in a local value chain and benefit from annual inflows of expertise from Western partners, including free access to patented technology and free culturing of probiotic bacteria in a local lab. The case asks students to critically analyze the hurdles to profitability and suggest working solutions to scale up the venture. Challenges include funding sufficiency, clarity of roles and responsibilities, patent restrictions, kitchen ownership, food safety and quality concerns, and liability concerns. Options include technology/model licensing and franchising, organic growth and expansion to gain higher margins and greater control over the milk supply, and extending their distribution reach. If the Yogurt Mamas cannot find an attractive and feasible growth option, the partners will have to contemplate venture termination once the grant funding comes to an end, or consider alternative exit options.

9B12M033 – 9 pages
Value Chain Development: Care Kenya's Challenge to Make Markets Work for the Poor (A)
Kevin McKague

This case examines how CARE, a non-profit international development organization, begins to pursue a market-based approach to meeting its poverty-reduction mission. Specifically, a CARE project manager explores how previous work with low-income livestock herders in drought-prone eastern Kenya might offer an opportunity to work with value chain actors to improve access to markets and increase farmers' incomes.

With the Kenyan livestock project as the pilot for this new approach, Case (A)'s main decision point concerns a strategic choice on what role CARE should play in the value chain to support low-income pastoralists. Options include 1) becoming directly involved in value chain transactions, buying and selling livestock, and providing inputs to farmers or 2) acting as a value chain facilitator to provide the information and incentives to existing actors to make the value chain more efficient and inclusive for low-income producers. This strategic decision is part of a larger proposal that students are tasked to create for CARE's market-based livestock project.

9B12M034 – 5 pages
Value Chain Development: Care Kenya's Challenge to Make Markets Work for the Poor (B)
Kevin McKague

This case is a supplement to Value Chain Development: Care Kenya's Challenge to Make Markets Work for the Poor (A).

9B13M044 – 8 pages
Cool Pastures Dairy and Kenya's Changing Market for Milk (A) 9B13M044
Nicole R.D. Haggerty, Pamela Odhiambo, Tom Collins, Robert Freele, Andrea Leung

This three-part case highlights the strategic decision-making and growth management challenges in the suddenly liberalized Kenyan dairy industry. Following the collapse of the nation-wide distribution system on which small-scale dairy farmers in Kenya relied to reach the market, the resulting gap in the value chain between supply and demand created an opportunity for one entrepreneur. Cool Pastures Dairy was founded and rapidly expanded in an atmosphere not only of little competition but also corruption and lack of infrastructure, especially poor roads, limited banking and almost non-existent cell phone accessibility. Although the company considered various alternatives to expanding, the business was overcome by problems with inefficient or corrupt retailers and accountants, as well as the owner's lack of business experience, and went bankrupt. When conditions improved as the government invested in infrastructure, the entrepreneur considered restarting his business. Is this a viable enterprise in light of improved conditions? Which expansion alternative should the resuscitated company pursue? The B case 9B13M045 discusses managing corruption and the C case 9B13M046 re-considers the business model.

9B09A015 – 10 pages
Making Waves in Rural Kenya
Sebastian Herrmann, Glenn Brophey, Denyse Lafrance-Horning

The developers of a simple, inexpensive, locally produced rain water harvesting system tackle the social marketing issues in the undeveloped market of rural Kenya. The benefits of the product are obvious but the poverty levels and entrenched traditions create significant and unique marketing challenges.

9B05M056 – 12 pages
Care Kenya: Making Social Enterprise Sustainable
Pratima Bansal, Tom Ewart

CARE's Rural Entrepreneurship and Agribusiness Promotion project is a new, market-driven approach to development in Kenya. While the project has been successful from a development standpoint, it is not commercially viable. The sector manager must determine how to improve the project and make it commercially sustainable. Students will understand the advantages and opportunity for profit/nonprofit partnerships and social enterprise as complementary entities for social and economic development. PowerPoint slide presentation is available, product 5B05M056.

9B13M045 – 3 pages
Cool Pastures Dairy and Kenya's Changing Market for Milk (B)
Nicole R.D. Haggerty, Pamela Odhiambo, Tom Collins, Robert Freele, Andrea Leung

Part B of a three-part series. See 9B13M044 and 9B13M046.

9B13M046 – 2 pages
Cool Pastures Dairy and Kenya's Changing Market for Milk (C)
Nicole R.D. Haggerty, Pamela Odhiambo, Tom Collins, Robert Freele, Andrea Leung

Part C of a three-part series. See 9B13M044 and 9B13M045.

9B13M052 – 14 pages
Milango Financial Services
Nicole R.D. Haggerty, Fridah Theuri, Meera Haji, Nurin Jamal, Nadeem Nathoo

The co-founder of a Kenyan microfinance institution is troubled. Although his company has experienced great success in the past three years, it now faces cash flow problems. The co-founder has exhausted his personal resources and seeks an investor, local or international banks, or a process improvement program to ensure the company's long-term success. He needs to evaluate his options and propose a solution to the other board members.

9B09M050 – 28 pages
Social Enterprise Under Adversity: Bridge EXP in Kiberia (A)
Oana Branzei, Eduardo Zarate

The case illustrates the opportunities, challenges and trade-offs involved in developing a pro-social business venture in emerging economies by outlining the interplay between a Nairobi-based venture by Insta Products (Insta) and a Toronto-based non-profit volunteering consultancy for sustainable new ventures with a high potential to accelerate local development. The case is set in the midst of social unrest in the spring of 2008, as the consulting team prepares to give their strategic recommendation based on detailed entrepreneurial, financial and marketing considerations. Focused on the commercial introduction of enriched flours to the retail market in Kenya, the opportunity presented in the case is expected to double the production of Insta in five years while building a stable Ksh 2.1 billion business. The new venture represents a pro-social corporate venture by a 15-year old company with strong capabilities in relief food aid. Insta had been engaged with CARE Kenya and Acumen Fund to solicit funding, and had commissioned independent market research. The Bridge Expedition Partners stepped in to critically review the business plan and offer financial modeling and market analysis to assess Insta Products in opportunity evaluation and the implementation of the new venture. The decision boils down to how Insta framed the venturing opportunity. If Insta focused on affordability, they would minimize pack size and focus on kiosk distribution (potentially supported through high frequency bicycle deliveries). If, however, the most important driver for low-income families when purchasing the porridge-like product uji was price sensitivity instead, Insta could be better off launching with larger packages, with better value per kilogram, distributed through dukas and supermarkets, where Insta's products and prices would be compared against established uji producers. The latter value proposition could still appeal to low income consumers and economize on distribution costs by pushing buyers to save for a weekly/monthly uji mix purchase rather than buy it as needed from local kiosks. The two strategies were radically different. The former tasked Insta with developing new distribution networks and likely investing in promotional activities that would have kiosks owners at the centre of its business model. The latter would expose Insta to fierce competition in the supermarket uji niche, and pit it against strong (and resource rich) competitors, putting the onus on Insta to differentiate its offering (on nutrition, price or likely a combination of product attributes and brand promise). There was no middle of the road - the two approaches required dramatically different models, and Insta was unlikely to have the managerial capability, let alone acquire the resources to finance both. The case ask students to make this decision, taking on either the roles of Insta's representatives and/or the Bridge consulting teams as the three recent Ivey MBAs engage in complex modeling and draw on the expertise of local and international students.

9B07M022 – 16 pages
Honey Care Africa (A): A Different Business Model
Oana Branzei, Michael Valente

The founding entrepreneur of Honey Care Africa revitalized Kenya's national honey industry by focusing on small-holder farmers across the country. Central to success was an innovative business model: a synergistic partnership between the development sector, the private sector, and rural communities that drew on the core competencies of each party as well as their complementary roles. This tripartite model was combined with local manufacturing of beehives, effective beekeeping training, a guaranteed market for small-holder farmers through forward contracts, and prompt payments. Four years later, Honey Care had achieved a 68 per cent market share in Kenya and distributed several brands of organic, fair-trade honey internationally, and was a lead distributor of beeswax. The business model had been successfully replicated in neighbouring Tanzania, and there were plans to expand to Uganda and Sudan.

9B13M021 – 14 pages
JKUAT Nakuru-CBD Campus: Managing Growth in the Kenyan Public Sector
Nicole R.D. Haggerty, Juma Wagoki, Pamela Odhiambo, Eric Richmond, Marc Soberano, Adam Levine

The director of a subsidiary campus of a national university is faced with many problems: he is personally overworked as both manager of the new campus and as a lecturer; there are too many part-time lecturers as compared to full-time lecturers on staff, leading to a loss of commitment and morale; a decision has to be made about buying or leasing the newly renovated building in which the campus is located; and, most importantly, all of his decisions are subject to approval by the main administration of the university, which manages the funds allotted by the government and raised through tuitions. Without controlling the campus's own bank account, the director is unable to implement the initiatives he believes will allow the school to grow in a sustainable manner. The issues that arise as a direct result of this arrangement provide an interesting perspective on the difficulties involved in managing a small subsidiary of a large public organization.

9B07M060 – 19 pages
Honey Care Africa: A Tripartite Model for Sustainable Beekeeping
Oana Branzei, Michael Valente

The director and co-founder of Honey Care Africa (Honey Care) looks back over the six years of operations and describes the original business model and several sequential changes based on feedback from rural communities, partner organizations, and learning by doing through field operations. Increasing international recognition highlights the potential impact of the model on inspiring sustainable grassroots ventures in the agriculture sector in Kenya. For Tanzania and other developing countries, he ponders the potential opportunities and challenges in replicating the Honey Care model elsewhere. The case also tackles alternative routes for scaling up the model in East Africa. Students are presented with several specific challenges which illustrate the growing tension between Honey Care's original commitment to the farmers and its prospects for international take-off, and are asked to propose alternative model reconfigurations to resolve this tension.

9B07B003 – 9 pages
Moolani Foundation
Elizabeth M.A. Grasby, Anuj Chandarana

A non-profit organization, partnered with a microfinance organization would send undergraduate students from a business school to teach entrepreneurship in Third World countries: Kenya, India and South Africa. The case requires students to develop fairly straightforward cash budgets and to consider sensitivity analysis based on exchange rate fluctuations. Students are introduced to the concept of micro financing as an effective tool for improving the socio-economic status of entrepreneurs in Third World countries. Students are encouraged to think about relevant issues in gaining sponsorship for a non-profit venture.

9A85B008 – 7 pages
Sapphire Beach Hotel Limited
Randy P. Kudar, Larry Wynant, Steven Cox

The general manager of a financial services company is examining a request for a loan to finance the completion of a hotel on the ocean shore in Kenya. Projected costs and revenues for the first three years are presented. The manager is trying to assess the validity of these estimates and whether he should recommend the loan.

9B14M043 – 5 pages
Lilgaa Property Management: Property Investing in Eldoret, Kenya
Nicole R.D. Haggerty , Charles Lagat , Loice Maru , Daniel Korman , Ivan Liu , Sherry Xie

In 2013, a successful entrepreneur in Eldoret, Kenya is considering her options. In 2007, after a history of operating several small businesses, only one of which failed, she founded Lilgaa Property Management Ltd., a real estate and property management business. She has focused her energies on the real estate industry in spite of its many challenges, which include corruption and lack of regulation, enforcement and trust. Now, she needs to decide how to grow her business, specifically, whether she should buy a building in Eldoret and rent it out or buy a plot of land on the outskirts of town and build a hotel; if the latter, should it cater to the middle or upper class? She must assess the various elements of the business, political and social environments and consider the potential risks that could affect the outcome of her investment.

9B14D002 – 7 pages
Helio Polymer Enterprises
Nicole R.D. Haggerty , Juma Wagoki , Clarke Eaton , Wesley Hunt , Matthew Smart  

Helio Polymer Enterprises, located in Nakuru, Kenya, is a company that manufactures synthetic polymer gunny bags used in the transportation and handling of animal feed. The owner wants to expand her business operations so she can serve more clients. She has three options: to add a night shift, buy a new printing machine or start producing laminate gunny bags for other markets. Before she makes the decision, she must understand her current operational capacity and determine what aspects of customer service she believes are important for the long-term success of her company.

9B07M023 – 9 pages
Honey Care Africa (B): Opportunity Knocks
Oana Branzei , Michael Valente

This is a supplement to Honey Care Africa (A): A Different Business Model.

9B07M024 – 3 pages
Honey Care Africa (C): Growth Alternatives
Oana Branzei , Michael Valente

This is a supplement to Honey Care Africa (A): A Different Business Model.

9B07M037 – 18 pages
Malawi Business Action Against Corruption
Oonagh Fitzgerald, James Ng'ombe

The founding executive director of the African Institute for Corporate Citizenship (AICC), felt very tense as he typed the last revisions to the speech he would be giving to a Llongwe merchants' association later in the week. He really enjoyed proudly describing his initiative, "Business Action Against Corruption", and the Business Code of Conduct for Combating Corruption in Malawi, to potential new partners. However, the founding executive director was beginning to feel concerned about its slow pace of adoption. He was particularly worried about how to manage the delicate relationship with the government.

9B14C018 – 17 pages
Sewa (A): Ela Bhatt 
Sonia Mehotra, Oana Branzei

In February 2014, a McKinsey Global Institute report proposed tracking an empowerment line that could enable India’s citizens to get out of poverty by providing the resources they needed to build better lives. This prompted Ela Bhatt, founder of the India-based Self-Employed Women’s Association, to take stock of her initiative to empower women working in India's informal sector. Since 1972, her organization has been widely acclaimed as a global first mover and active champion of grassroots development. Quickly approaching two million members in India and six neighbouring countries, and inspiring similar efforts in South Africa, Ghana, Mali and Burkina Faso, it exemplifies a unique form of positively deviant organizing by speaking to the centrality of human beings at work. Given resources, support and encouragement, its many members have used their own human agency even in the direst of circumstances to better their lives in ways most meaningful to them, for instance, by creating childcare, health care, banking, farming and education cooperatives. However, as she reaches retirement and contemplates the future, Bhatt wonders if the new generation of Indian leaders will take up the Gandhian socially minded path or follow the commercial careers opening up in the country’s multinational sector. 

9B14M026 – 11 pages
Beer for All: SABMiller in Mozambique
Margaret Sutherland , Tashmia Ismail

SABMiller, the world’s second largest brewer, has developed a business model in Mozambique that represents a radical departure from the firm’s traditional approach to beer production. Despite this multinational’s well-developed global supply chains and heavily centralized processes, it has disrupted both established processes and products and has, instead, innovated to produce a cassava-based beer in an effort to serve the low-income consumers who comprise the bulk of the African economic pyramid. In a marked departure from corporate best practices, the manufacturing process begins outside of the brewery and in the vicinity of the scattered and rural cassava farming plots.

9A97G003 – 12 pages
Siam Canadian Foods Co. Ltd.
John R. Kennedy, Tony S. Frost, Tom Gleave

The managing director and founder of Bangkok-based Siam Canadian Foods Co., Ltd., was considering the emerging business opportunities in neighboring Burma (also known as Myanmar). Although relatively undeveloped compared to the rest of Southeast Asia, Burma had been experiencing increasing levels of foreign investment activity in recent years. Siam, who had considered entering Burma in the past but declined, needed to determine if the time was now appropriate for the company to enter the market.

9B12A030 – 14 pages
Royal Bhutan Airlines – Drukair
Ron Mulholland

The chief executive officer of Royal Bhutan Airlines (Drukair) is concerned about growth and the seasonality of demand for Bhutan's national airline. The Kingdom of Bhutan, with a population of approximately 700,000, is located east of Nepal between India and China (Tibet). It has recently embarked on a program of modernization, including a move to democracy and promotion of tourism.

The tourism initiative is described as "high value, low volume," meaning that tourists must contract with a local tourist operator and pay minimum daily tariffs. Drukair has witnessed a steady growth in passengers, which is correlated closely with tourist visits, mostly from the West and Japan. Tourist tickets are booked by in-country tour operators; there are no Internet bookings at the time of the case.

The CEO is wondering what can be done to improve overall business. He is considering interlining, the practice of joining with other airlines, in order to give passengers the opportunity to book tickets from their home countries. Marketing for growth is also a concern, and as Drukair is the only carrier in Bhutan, the CEO wonders if he should be promoting tourism in the country as part of his marketing plan.

9B04C012 – 7 pages
The 1996 Everest Tragedy
Khushwant K. Pittenger

In May 1996, two world renowned climbers, along with some of their clients and guides, perished on Mount Everest in the mountain's deadliest tragedy to date. The accounts of survivors imply that biased decision making contributed to the tragedy. Did a decision lead to this tragedy or was it an unfortunate mountaineering accident? The case provides the opportunity to explore decision biases such as framing, escalation of commitment, anchoring, and over confidence and the issues of leadership style, group behaviour, team management and communication.

9B07M025 – 17 pages
City Water Tanzania (A): Water Partnerships for Dar es Salaam
Oana Branzei, Kevin McKague

This case examines how the Tanzania government intends to address a pressing deterioration in the infrastructure and services of Dar es Salaam's Water and Sewage Authority. The decision process unfolds in the spring of 2002, on the heels of the Cochabamba uprising in Bolivia and an increasing dispute over the involvement of the International Finance Corporation and the World Bank in other water development projects in Ghana, Mauritania and South Africa. At that time, the World Bank was already sponsoring similar projects in Angola, Benin, Guinea-Bissau, Niger, Rwanda Sao Tome and Senegal, despite some vocal local opposition. This multi-part case series is ideally suited for core or elective courses in strategy and sustainability to illustrate the types of ongoing tensions and divergent decision angles that influence the formation and performance of public-private partnerships and managing in a global context. It also provides a rich and graphic account of the special threats and opportunities in the water sector - a wealth of complementary teaching resources can also stimulate larger debates by juxtaposing the case decision with a broader crisis of confidence in for-profit solutions to water and sewage provision in Africa and in Latin America.

9B14A035 – 17 pages
A Public Relations Campaign for Rwanda 
Mary Weil, Ken Mark

On February 5, 2012, the founder of McDonald Kinley Emerson, a consultancy in Toronto, Canada, was asked to give a talk about country branding. She decided to focus on the efforts of Racepoint, a U.S. marketing services agency, to reshape the image of Rwanda. As it attempted to shift perceptions of the country from war-torn and chaotic, Racepoint’s campaign attracted controversy amid allegations that wrongdoings were being glossed over in favour of a tourist- and business-friendly image. In August 2011, the publication of documents outlining the contractual agreement between Racepoint and the current Rwandan government sparked scrutiny of the government’s perceived remaking of the country’s image. Can a country overcome its reputation for genocide and violence? Should countries actively use public relations tactics to change or reinforce their reputations in the same way that corporations do?

9B07M063 – 9 pages
Rwanda and David Cechetto
Frederick Keenan

Dr. David Cechetto, a University of Western Ontario (UWO) medical professor, left Rwanda after a distressing week. Having seen first-hand the impact of the 1994 genocide and the HIV/AIDS pandemic, Cechetto committed himself to accept the request from UWO and the Rector of the National University of Rwanda to direct a project to help rebuild Rwanda's health sector. As he was flying back to London, Ontario, he began to prepare a proposal for funding to be submitted within six months. His first decision was who his Rwandan partner or partners should be in this project.

9B07M025 – 17 pages
City Water Tanzania (A): Water Partnerships for Dar es Salaam
Oana Branzei, Kevin McKague

This case examines how the Tanzania government intends to address a pressing deterioration in the infrastructure and services of Dar es Salaam's Water and Sewage Authority. The decision process unfolds in the spring of 2002, on the heels of the Cochabamba uprising in Bolivia and an increasing dispute over the involvement of the International Finance Corporation and the World Bank in other water development projects in Ghana, Mauritania and South Africa. At that time, the World Bank was already sponsoring similar projects in Angola, Benin, Guinea-Bissau, Niger, Rwanda, Sao Tome and Senegal, despite some vocal local opposition. This multi-part case series is ideally suited for core or elective courses in strategy and sustainability to illustrate the types of ongoing tensions and divergent decision angles that influence the formation and performance of public-private partnerships and managing in a global context. It also provides a rich and graphic account of the special threats and opportunities in the water sector - a wealth of complementary teaching resources can also stimulate larger debates by juxtaposing the case decision with a broader crisis of confidence in for-profit solutions to water and sewage provision in Africa and in Latin America.

9B13A046 – 8 pages
Rwanda Backpackers
Nicole R.D. Haggerty , Dan Hernden , Annika Wang

After conducting thorough research, two young entrepreneurs in Rwanda realize they have the opportunity to target the international budget tourists commonly referred to as “backpackers.” Only one European-style backpacker hostel currently exists in the capital city of Kigali, and the low-budget tourism industry remains significantly underdeveloped throughout the country. The partners have seen how successful this type of tourism has become in neighbouring countries and desire to replicate it in their homeland. One of them has inherited a piece of land in a quiet nature area by a lake only five minutes’ drive from a major international bus terminal. Although they have very few financial resources between them, they realize that a hospitality business providing tent accommodation and basic services will be cheap to operate and will attract budget-conscious travelers. Now, in order to start construction, they must not only raise $19,000 within the next six months before Rwanda’s high tourist season begins but design a successful marketing plan to attract customers once the business opens.

9B07M025 – 17 pages
City Water Tanzania (A): Water Partnerships for Dar es Salaam
Oana Branzei , Kevin McKague 

This case examines how the Tanzania government intends to address a pressing deterioration in the infrastructure and services of Dar es Salaam's Water and Sewage Authority. The decision process unfolds in the spring of 2002, on the heels of the Cochabamba uprising in Bolivia and an increasing dispute over the involvement of the International Finance Corporation and the World Bank in other water development projects in Ghana, Mauritania and South Africa. At that time, the World Bank was already sponsoring similar projects in Angola, Benin, Guinea-Bissau, Niger, Rwanda Sao Tome and Senegal, despite some vocal local opposition. This multi-part case series is ideally suited for core or elective courses in strategy and sustainability to illustrate the types of ongoing tensions and divergent decision angles that influence the formation and performance of public-private partnerships and managing in a global context. It also provides a rich and graphic account of the special threats and opportunities in the water sector - a wealth of complementary teaching resources can also stimulate larger debates by juxtaposing the case decision with a broader crisis of confidence in for-profit solutions to water and sewage provision in Africa and in Latin America.

9B07M025 – 17 pages
City Water Tanzania (A): Water Partnerships for Dar es Salaam
Oana Branzei, Kevin McKague

This case examines how the Tanzania government intends to address a pressing deterioration in the infrastructure and services of Dar es Salaam's Water and Sewage Authority. The decision process unfolds in the spring of 2002, on the heels of the Cochabamba uprising in Bolivia and an increasing dispute over the involvement of the International Finance Corporation and the World Bank in other water development projects in Ghana, Mauritania and South Africa. At that time, the World Bank was already sponsoring similar projects in Angola, Benin, Guinea-Bissau, Niger, Rwanda Sao Tome and Senegal, despite some vocal local opposition. This multi-part case series is ideally suited for core or elective courses in strategy and sustainability to illustrate the types of ongoing tensions and divergent decision angles that influence the formation and performance of public-private partnerships and managing in a global context. It also provides a rich and graphic account of the special threats and opportunities in the water sector - a wealth of complementary teaching resources can also stimulate larger debates by juxtaposing the case decision with a broader crisis of confidence in for-profit solutions to water and sewage provision in Africa and in Latin America.

9B11M104 – 9 pages
Ransom on the High Seas: The Case of Piracy in Somalia
Alvaro Cuervo-Cazurra, Michael Train, Jeanne McNett

In recent years, incidents of piracy have increased dramatically off the coast of the failed state of Somalia. In this case, a group of 14 pirates have hijacked a cargo ship full of machinery, but have yet to make any demands. They hold hostage a multinational crew of 20 (whose captain and two officers are American), the ship, and the cargo. The chief operating officer of an international shipping company must choose among alternative strategies to get the crew, cargo, and ship back safely with as little cost as possible.

9B07M028 – 6 pages
City Water Tanzania (D): Things Fall Apart
Oana Branzei, Kevin McKague

This is a supplement to City Water Tanzania (A): Water Partnerships for Dar es Salaam, product #9B07M025. This case summarizes the decision of the negotiation: the breakup of City Water Tanzania and its aftermath, including litigation and forgone opportunities to meet the needs of the local residents.

9B07M027A – 3 pages
City Water Tanzania (C): The Private Sector Experiment
Oana Branzei, Kevin McKague

This is a supplement to City Water Tanzania (A): Water Partnerships for Dar es Salaam, product #9B07M025 and is a two-part role-play. In this part (A) role-play, students take the position of Edward Lowassa, Tanzania's Minister of Water.

9B10M020 – 15 pages
Barrick Gold Corporation – Tanzania
Aloysius Newenham-Kahindi, Paul W. Beamish

This case examines the giant Canadian mining corporation, Barrick Gold Corporation (Barrick), (called Africa Barrick Gold plc since 2009), and the way it engages in sustainable community developments that surround its mining activities in Tanzania. Following recent organized tensions and heightened criticism from local communities, media, international social lobbyists and local not-for-profit organizations (NFOs), Barrick has attempted to deal with the local communities in a responsible manner. At issue for senior management was whether there was much more that it could reasonably do to resolve the tensions.

The case considers: how MNEs seek social license and local legitimacy; the relevance of hybrid institutional infrastructures; the evolving global roles for MNEs and their subsidiaries. The case is appropriate for use in courses in international management, global corporations and society, and international development and sustainable value creation.

9B09M051 – 22 pages
Yogurt Mamas: Probiotics in Tanzania
Oana Branzei, David J. Sharp, Jessica Kelly, Osama Siddiqui

This case illustrates a grassroots enterprise's path to self-sufficiency in a subsistence market context. It explores the gradual evolution of a business model with strong social mandates (pro-health, pro-women) and asks which growth options best marry profitability and positive social change. The Mwanza, Tanzania-based Yogurt Mamas emerge as entrepreneurial role models in their communities, with funds from Western donors and an exciting new technology.

The Yogurt Mamas produce and locally distribute a probiotic yogurt to their small community; they are interconnected in a local value chain and benefit from annual inflows of expertise from Western partners, including free access to patented technology and free culturing of probiotic bacteria in a local lab. The case asks students to critically analyze the hurdles to profitability and suggest working solutions to scale up the venture. Challenges include funding sufficiency, clarity of roles and responsibilities, patent restrictions, kitchen ownership, food safety and quality concerns, and liability concerns. Options include technology/model licensing and franchising, organic growth and expansion to gain higher margins and greater control over the milk supply, and extending their distribution reach. If the Yogurt Mamas cannot find an attractive and feasible growth option, the partners will have to contemplate venture termination once the grant funding comes to an end, or consider alternative exit options.

9B07C040 – 18 pages
Human Resource Management in Multinational Banks in Tanzania
Paul W. Beamish, Aloysius Newenham-Kahindi

The case examines how the best practices of two banks were organized and managed to provide financial services to a small niche of foreign customers in the mining, tourism and construction sectors in Tanzania. The two banks claimed to be similar in many ways. They both were from countries whose economies were run broadly on neo-liberal lines, in that there was little state intervention in either economy, however, differences existed with respect to how they managed their operations. The case is ideally suited to illustrate the on-going tension and different types of best practices in cross-market integration. It provides opportunities to explore the challenges faced by multinational company banks in managing global workforces, the evolution of the banking sector, and the influence of technology in shaping work in organizations.

9B07M027B – 4 pages
City Water Tanzania (C): Striking A Deal
Oana Branzei, Kevin McKague

This is a supplement to City Water Tanzania (A): Water Partnerships for Dar es Salaam, product #9B07M025 and is a two-part role-play. In this part (B) role-play, students take the position of Cliff Stone, Biwater's former director of sales for Africa and now chief executive officer of City Water's management.

9B07M026 – 6 pages
City of Water Tanzania (B): Privatizing Dar es Salaam's Water Utility
Oana Branzei, Kevin McKague

This is a supplement to City Water Tanzania (A): Water Partnerships for Dar es Salaam, product #9B07M025. It details the terms of the lease contract with an international operator, Biwater, and discusses the alternatives that were considered and discarded, the bidding process, and the roles and motivations of the parties. The key questions revolve around a) the adequacy of the decision, b) the responsibility for the next steps and c) the milestones and metrics to gauge the success of the privatization.

9B07M025 – 17 pages
City Water Tanzania (A): Water Partnerships for Dar es Salaam
Oana Branzei, Kevin McKague

This case examines how the Tanzania government intends to address a pressing deterioration in the infrastructure and services of Dar es Salaam's Water and Sewage Authority. The decision process unfolds in the spring of 2002, on the heels of the Cochabamba uprising in Bolivia and an increasing dispute over the involvement of the International Finance Corporation and the World Bank in other water development projects in Ghana, Mauritania and South Africa. At that time, the World Bank was already sponsoring similar projects in Angola, Benin, Guinea-Bissau, Niger, Rwanda Sao Tome and Senegal, despite some vocal local opposition. This multi-part case series is ideally suited for core or elective courses in strategy and sustainability to illustrate the types of ongoing tensions and divergent decision angles that influence the formation and performance of public-private partnerships and managing in a global context. It also provides a rich and graphic account of the special threats and opportunities in the water sector - a wealth of complementary teaching resources can also stimulate larger debates by juxtaposing the case decision with a broader crisis of confidence in for-profit solutions to water and sewage provision in Africa and in Latin America.

9B07M060 – 19 pages
Honey Care Africa: A Tripartite Model For Sustainable Beekeeping
Oana Branzei, Michael Valente

The director and co-founder of Honey Care Africa (Honey Care) looks back over the six years of operations and describes the original business model and several sequential changes based on feedback from rural communities, partner organizations, and learning by doing through field operations. Increasing international recognition highlights the potential impact of the model on inspiring sustainable grassroots ventures in the agriculture sector in Kenya. For Tanzania and other developing countries, he ponders the potential opportunities and challenges in replicating the Honey Care model elsewhere. The case also tackles alternative routes for scaling up the model in East Africa. Students are presented with several specific challenges which illustrate the growing tension between Honey Care's original commitment to the farmers and its prospects for international take-off, and are asked to propose alternative model reconfigurations to resolve this tension.

9B07M022 – 16 pages
Honey Care Africa (A): A Different Business Model
Oana Branzei, Michael Valente

The founding entrepreneur of Honey Care Africa revitalized Kenya's national honey industry by focusing on small-holder farmers across the country. Central to success was an innovative business model: a synergistic partnership between the development sector, the private sector, and rural communities that drew on the core competencies of each party as well as their complementary roles. This tripartite model was combined with local manufacturing of beehives, effective beekeeping training, a guaranteed market for small-holder farmers through forward contracts, and prompt payments. Four years later, Honey Care had achieved a 68 per cent market share in Kenya and distributed several brands of organic, fair-trade honey internationally, and was a lead distributor of beeswax. The business model had been successfully replicated in neighbouring Tanzania, and there were plans to expand to Uganda and Sudan.

9B07M023 – 9 pages
Honey Care Africa (B): Opportunity Knocks
Oana Branzei , Michael Valente

This is a supplement to Honey Care Africa (A): A Different Business Model.

9B07M024 – 3 pages
Honey Care Africa (C): Growth Alternatives
Oana Branzei , Michael Valente

This is a supplement to Honey Care Africa (A): A Different Business Model.

9B14M131 – 11 pages
LifeNet International's Transformation of African Healthcare via Social Franchising
Ilan Alon, Raul Carril

LifeNet International was a social conversion franchise concept aiming to provide basic, quality and sustainable healthcare to poor and underserved populations in sub-Saharan Africa. The founder and president had relied on the assistance of others to help bring about his idea of affordable healthcare. In 2012, the executive director for LifeNet International’s operations in Burundi, began focussing on developing the company in Burundi. She was excited to see LifeNet International’s presence expanding into Uganda. Her vision for LifeNet International, however, was much bigger. She envisioned LifeNet International as a sustainable organization that could provide quality healthcare and medicine to millions of people around the world.

If it planned to expand internationally and bring healthcare to more of the world’s population, LifeNet International needed a solution to tie its services together to further scale, replicate and measure its social impact. How could LifeNet International bring its social conversion franchising model to other African nations and internationally? Would LifeNet International’s model work logistically, financially and culturally? What adaptations would LifeNet need to make and what legal challenges would it face in the process of expansion? Furthermore, what structures would LifeNet need to put in place to manage the complexity of its growing network of partner clinics and operations?

9B07M022 – 16 pages
Honey Care Africa (A): A Different Business Model
Oana Branzei, Michael Valente

The founding entrepreneur of Honey Care Africa revitalized Kenya's national honey industry by focusing on small-holder farmers across the country. Central to success was an innovative business model: a synergistic partnership between the development sector, the private sector, and rural communities that drew on the core competencies of each party as well as their complementary roles. This tripartite model was combined with local manufacturing of beehives, effective beekeeping training, a guaranteed market for small-holder farmers through forward contracts, and prompt payments. Four years later, Honey Care had achieved a 68 per cent market share in Kenya and distributed several brands of organic, fair-trade honey internationally, and was a lead distributor of beeswax. The business model had been successfully replicated in neighbouring Tanzania, and there were plans to expand to Uganda and Sudan.

9B07M023 – 9 pages
Honey Care Africa (B): Opportunity Knocks
Oana Branzei , Michael Valente

This is a supplement to Honey Care Africa (A): A Different Business Model.

9B07M024 – 3 pages
Honey Care Africa (C): Growth Alternatives
Oana Branzei , Michael Valente

This is a supplement to Honey Care Africa (A): A Different Business Model.

9B13M076 – 13 pages
Hello Healthcare: Taking a Cooperative Business into Africa
Albert Wocke

A retired Swiss banker has decided to bring primary healthcare to Africa by using a cooperative business model that brings together complementary firms. The model has proven successful in the United Arab Emirates, Zambia and Ghana. He now faces the decision of whether to expand into new African countries, and if so, which countries to enter, how to select partners and how to recruit country managers. The case also illustrates the challenges and misconceptions of doing business in Africa.

9B09M009 – 13 pages
NFC in Mongolia
Lu Jiang, Michael Frechette, Dongmei Tu, Xia Wang, Marie Cheng

NFC was a state-owned company listed on the China stock exchange. It had operations in Zambia, Iran and Kazakhstan before entering into Mongolia. Most of the prior projects were turn-key operations. Mongolia was the first country in which it had an international joint venture (IJV). The joint venture (JV) agreement was signed in 1998. Due to many delays, it was not until 2005 that it finally started operating. In mid-2007, the Mongolian parliament notified the JV that its 5-year 0 per cent and 5-year 50 per cent of income tax term (starting from 2005) had been cancelled. Not only would it need to pay full tax starting from 2007, it had to pay the exempted tax amount from 2005 and 2006. Inside the JV, the union desired another pay raise despite the fact that salaries had been increased 10 per cent just six months ago. Outside the JV, local shipping companies threatened to block the factory gate if the JV did not sign a shipping contract with them on their terms.

9B04M060 – 19 pages
Divesting the Zambian Mining Industry
Luka Powanga

The Zambian government embarked on a divesture of its mining industry in 1992. However, by July of 2004, 67 per cent of the mining assets were still in government hands and the government is still looking for equity partners. This case can be used as a basis for discussing political and country risk analysis, international negotiations, feasibility study analysis, managing strategic failure, and ethical and social responsibility issues.