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International Business Institute

Cross-Cultural Article and Book Chapter Abstracts

Cross-Cultural Article and Book Chapter Abstracts

A Bibliography of Ivey-authored Cross-Cultural-Related Publications
As of August 23, 2017

Refereed Articles

Cui, V., Vertinsky, I., Robinson, S., Branzei, O., 2017, "Trust in the Workplace: The Role of Social Interaction Diversity in the Community and in the Workplace", Business and Society, Forthcoming.

Keywords: Social interaction; Diversity; Social trust; Community; Workplace; Individualistic and collectivistic cultures.

Abstract: Extending the literature on social capital development in the community, this article examines the impact of diverse social interactions (in the community and the workplace) on the development of social trust in the workplace, and investigates whether their effects differ in individualistic and collectivistic cultures. Using survey data collected in Canada and China, the authors find that the diversity of one’s social interactions in the community is positively associated with one’s social trust in the workplace, and this relationship is not significantly different between the two cultures. Diversity of one’s social interactions in the workplace is also positively associated with one’s social trust in the workplace, though only in collectivistic cultures.


Ikegami, J., Maznevski, M.L., Ota, M., 2017, "Creating the asset of foreignness: Schrödinger’s cat and lessons from the Nissan revival", Cross Cultural and Strategic Management, 24(1): 55 - 77.

Keywords : Cross-cultural management; Inter-personal trust; Cross-cultural communication; Asset of foreignness; Global leadership; Liability of foreignness.

Abstract : Purpose: This paper challenges the assumption in cross-cultural research of liability of foreignness (LOF). The literature review demonstrates that LOF comes from pressures for isomorphism, while asset of foreignness (AOF) can derive from the active process of breaking norms. The purpose of this paper is to explore how leaders can initiate and sustain AOF. Design/methodology/approach: The paper analyzes the case of the Nissan revival led by Carlos Ghosn and the impact in the years after. The analysis is based on the authors’ interviews and discussions with Ghosn and senior leaders at Nissan and Renault, complemented with published interviews and assessments. Findings: Analysis confirmed the potential for AOF, and further uncovered four patterns of behavior that created AOF virtuous cycles among Nissan leaders: initiating trust, shaping identity, anchoring and transcending common language, and acting positively on ignorance. The virtuous cycles were sustainable and transformed into new global strategic perspectives. Research limitations/implications: The paper proposes a research model identifying moderators between foreignness and performance. Generalizability is limited by the focus on a single case study. Practical implications: The four sets of behaviors can serve as guides to action for leaders when working in foreign contexts. Originality/value: This research goes beneath the surface of a famous example to analyze leadership dynamics over time, and provides insight on positive aspects of foreignness.


Shin, D.J., Hasse, V.C., Schotter, A., 2017, "Multinational Enterprises within Cultural Space and Place: Integrating Cultural Distance and Cultural Tightness-Looseness", Academy of Management Journal, 60(3): 904 - 921.

Keywords : Expatriate PCNs; cultural distance; cultural tightness–looseness; cultural space and place; norms; values; transaction cost economics.

Abstract : Prior research into the effects of cultural differences between MNE home and host countries on expatriate staffing decisions in foreign subsidiaries has produced a large number of conflicting findings. We address some of these conflicting findings and aim to advance theory in two ways. First, we draw on transaction cost economics to explain why and how the effects of cultural distance on the proportion of expatriate parent-country nationals form a curvilinear instead of a linear relationship, as commonly proposed. Second, we integrate the values-based cultural distance concept with the norms-based tightness-looseness concept. This allows us to simultaneously account for cultural differences between countries and location-bound normative cultural effects within countries, which cannot be overcome solely through expatriate learning and adaptation. Using a large global dataset of Japanese MNEs, we find support for a convex relationship between cultural distance and the proportion of expatriate parent-country nationals. We also find a moderating (steepening) effect of tightness-looseness on this relationship. The results reconcile some of the tensions between the subjectivists' values-based approach, which positions culture in the shared cognitions realm, and the structuralists' approach, which places culture in a normative situational environment.


Holloway, I.R., Lee, H.S., Shen, T., 2016, "Private Equity Firm Heterogeneity and Cross-Border Acquisitions", International Review of Economics and Finance, 44: 118 - 144.

Keywords: Cross-border mergers and acquisitions (M&As); Private equity; Leveraged buyout.

Abstract: We study the global competition among private equity (PE) buyout firms. Using a detailed database of PE firm characteristics, we investigate how PE firm heterogeneity across strategy and performance affects the volume of global acquisitions. A one-standard-deviation increase in a firm's average internal rate of return is associated with an approximate doubling of the number of deals in any given country. We also find that transaction costs associated with geographic, cultural, and administrative distance matter to different degrees across PE firms, and that these differences are related to the strategic profiles of the firms.


Peng, A., Van Dyne, L., Oh, K., 2015, "The Influence of Motivational Cultural Intelligence on Cultural Effectiveness Based on Study Abroad: The Moderating Role of Participants’ Cultural Identity", Journal of Management Education, 39(5): 572 - 596.

Abstract: This study examines the influence of motivational cultural intelligence (CQ) on the development of cultural effectiveness among university short-term business study abroad program participants. We conceptualize cultural effectiveness as the degree of psychological comfort and success in managing intercultural demands. Results of a multiple-source, two-wave lagged study demonstrate that initial levels of motivational CQ were positively associated with increases in (a) cultural well-being reported by participants and (b) peer perceptions of suitability for overseas work. In addition, cultural identity, an individual’s psychological identification with his or her own national culture, strengthened the time-lagged relationship between motivational CQ and peer-rated suitability for overseas work. Participants with strong cultural identity and low motivational CQ were viewed as the least suitable for an overseas job. We discuss practical implications for designing cross-cultural education programs and implications for future research.


Power, D., Klassen, R.D., Kull, T., Simpson, D., 2015, "Competitive Goals and Plant Investment in Environment and Safety Practices: Moderating Effect of National Culture", Decision Sciences, 46(1): 63 - 100.

Abstract: Operations managers clearly play a critical role in targeting plant-level investments toward environment and safety practices. In principle, a “rational” response would be to align this investment with senior management’s competitive goals for operational performance. However, operations managers also are influenced by contingent factors, such as their national culture, thus creating potential tension that might bias investment away from a simple rational response. Using data from 1453 plants in 24 countries, we test the moderating influence of seven of the national cultural characteristics on investment at the plant level in environment and safety practices. Four of the seven national cultural characteristics from GLOBE (i.e., uncertainty avoidance, in-group collectivism, future orientation and performance orientation) shifted investment away from an expected “rational” response. Positive bias was evident when the national culture favoured consistency and formalized procedures and rewarded performance improvement. In contrast, managers exhibited negative bias when familial groups and local coalitions were powerful, or future outcomes – rather than current actions – were more important. Overall, this study highlights the critical importance of moving beyond a naïve expectation that plant-level investment will naturally align with corporate competitive goals for environment and safety. Instead, the national culture where the plant is located will influence these investments, and must be taken into account by senior management.


Strike, V., Berrone, P., Sapp, S., Congiu, L., 2015, "A socioemotional wealth approach to CEO career horizons in family firms", Journal of Management Studies, 52(4): 555 - 583.

Keywords: CEO career horizon; Socioemotional wealth; Family CEO; Family firms.

Abstract: This paper challenges the predominant view that as CEOs near retirement, they forgo risky long-term strategic choices and instead focus on decisions that enhance their own short-term self-interests. Drawing on the socioemotional wealth (SEW) literature, we argue that unlike near-retirement CEOs in widely held firms, near-retirement CEOs in family firms are more concerned about transgenerational control and the legacy that they pass on to future generations. We further contend that the priority of SEW dimensions can change within family firms depending on the CEO's time to retirement. Consequently, near-retirement CEOs in family firms differ from their counterparts in nonfamily firms in that they are willing to continue to engage in international acquisitions as they approach retirement, despite the potential short-term risks. We further hypothesize that this effect depends on whether the CEO is a family member, whether the CEO is succeeded by another family member, and whether the CEO is the founder. In analyzing 3,432 family and nonfamily firm-year observations from the S&P 500 for the period between 1997 and 2009, we find support for our hypotheses. Subsequent analyses indicate that near retirement, family CEOs acquire larger and culturally closer targets than their nonfamily counterparts. Our paper confirms the need to more fully consider the characteristics of owners and managers in analyses of the CEO career horizon problem.


Su, N., 2015, "Cultural Sensemaking in Offshore Information Technology Service Suppliers: A Cultural Frame Perspective", MIS Quarterly, 39(4): 959 - 983.

Keywords: IT outsourcing; IT supplier; cultural sensemaking; cultural frame; China.

Abstract: In today’s global IT outsourcing relationships, individual employees need to operate effectively in culturally diverse environments. Such intercultural interactions can be especially challenging for members of IT service suppliers based in offshore locations. Through an in-depth qualitative case study of one of the largest China-based IT service firms with diverse clients from Japan, the United States, and China, this research elaborates the cultural sensemaking activities of the supplier’s individual employees. Specifically, drawing on the dynamic constructivist view of culture, this study develops the construct of “cultural frames” in the context of global IT outsourcing to characterize the knowledge structures guiding an individual’s collaboration with diverse clients. A portfolio of cultural frames emerges and evolves through the individual’s cultural sensemaking activities, which consist of the iterative enactment, alignment, and retention of cultural frames. In the cultural sensemaking process, the activity of frame bridging, in particular, creates significant value for the outsourcing relationship, and is especially salient among bicultural employees.


Peng, G., Beamish, P.W., 2014, "The Effect of Host-Country Long Term Orientation on Subsidiary Ownership and Survival", Asia Pacific Journal of Management, 31(2): 423 - 453.

Keywords: Cultural distance; Geographic distance; Long term orientation; Subsidiary ownership; Subsidiary survival; Transaction cost; Transaction value.

Abstract: This paper examines the role which the long term orientation (LTO) dimension of host country culture plays in transforming multinational corporations' (MNCs') focus from transaction cost to transaction value in the context of MNC subsidiary ownership and survival. We used a sample of 10,236 overseas subsidiaries established by 1,291 Japanese MNCs in 29 host countries with varying levels of LTO to test our hypotheses. Results first showed that LTO has a direct positive effect on ownership levels. Second, we observed that there were positive interactions between LTO and cultural distance, and between LTO and geographic distance, on ownership levels. Third, we found that there were positive interactions between LTO and subsidiary ownership level, and between LTO and cultural distance, on subsidiary survival. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed in terms of the vital role LTO plays in determining whether transaction value or transaction cost considerations prevail in MNCs' ownership strategies, and how MNCs can better take advantage of host country LTO and improve the survival likelihood of their subsidiaries.


Maznevski, M.L., 2013, "Comments on the Interview: Best Approaches and Practices to Increase Cultural Awareness and Prepare Managers For Working in a Culturally Diverse Environment", Academy of Management Learning and Education, 12(3): 509-511.

Abstract: (unavailable) 


Maznevski, M.L., Stahl, G.K., Mendenhall, M.E., 2013, "Introduction to Special Issue. Towards an Integration of Global Leadership Practice and Scholarship: Repairing Disconnects and Heightening Mutual Understanding", European Journal of International Management, 7(5), 493-500.

Abstract: (unavailable)


Jonsen, K., Maznevski, M.L., Schneider, S.C. 2011, "Diversity and its Not So Diverse Literature: An International Perspective", International Journal of Cross Cultural Management, 11(1): 35-62.

Abstract: This paper reviews workforce diversity literature and its research findings. We identify important gaps between the literature and the challenges of diversity management. These gaps include lack of organizational level analysis, tokenism, and artificially constructed research settings that cannot address a variety of cultural contexts. Furthermore, most studies do not investigate underlying beliefs and values or managerial interventions. We conclude that the diversity field itself is not very diverse and has been dominated by US-centric research. We provide suggestions for future research themes: language diversity, cultural contextualization of diversity, and social class diversity.


Schotter, A., Beamish, P.W., 2011, "General Manager Staffing and Performance in Transition Economy Subsidiaries: A Sub-National Analysis", International Studies of Management and Organization, 41(2): 55 - 87.

Keywords: Transition economies; Multinational corporation; Foreignness and emerging markets; Cross-cultural issues in HRM; Role of formal and informal networks; FDI legitimacy; Joint venture; China.

Abstract: Drawing from institutional theory, we address the issue of local versus expatriate subsidiary CEO staffing decisions of multinational corporations (MNCs) at the sub-national level. Our analysis of 2315 MNC subsidiaries in China shows that foreign direct investment (FDI) legitimacy is a reliable measure of institutional environment differences at the sub-national level and that the commonly used country level measures including institutional distance and cultural distance mask pertinent within-country differences. MNCs that invest in Chinese provinces with lower FDI legitimacy use more local nationals as subsidiary CEOs compared to provinces with higher FDI legitimacy. In provinces with low FDI legitimacy, subsidiaries with local CEOs perform relatively better than subsidiaries with expatriate CEOs. This effect is particularly strong for wholly foreign owned subsidiaries and applies to all provinces except the most developed coastal regions. In provinces with higher levels of FDI legitimacy these effects are reversed.


Tanganelli, D., Schaan, J-L., 2011, "Ownership Strategy in SMEs’ International Joint Ventures", Journal of Small Business and Entrepreneurship, 24(4): 551 - 566.

Keywords: International joint ventures; SME; Ownership control; European Union.

Abstract: The internationalization of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) through international joint ventures (IJVs) has received limited attention in the international business literature. This study analyzes factors that lead an SME to gain a dominant equity share in an IJV. Three hypotheses are tested using bargaining-power, resource-dependency and transaction cost theories. Analyzing 55 IJVs among 110 European SMEs, we found that a partner’s dominant participation in the IJV ownership is positively related to its investment’s relative importance and the number of its employees. No relation was observed with knowledge transfer, IJV complexity and cultural distance in this ownership decision.


Chung, C.C., Beamish, P.W., 2010, "The Trap of Continual Ownership Change in International Equity Joint Ventures", Organization Science, 21(5): 995 - 1015.

Keywords: Alliances; Change; Competency trap; Competition; Control; Cooperation; Dynamics; Equity ownership; Evolution; Governance structure; Instability; International; Joint ventures; Performance; Power balance; Stability; Survival; Termination; Japan.

Abstract: This article examines how multiple ownership changes unfold in international equity joint venture (IEJV) evolution and how such repeated changes impact short-term performance and long-term survival. By theorizing a new concept-the trap of continual change-in the IEJV context, we challenge the adaptive viewpoint assumed in alliance dynamics research. We propose that partners sometimes respond to an initial dissatisfaction with the venture result with a dysfunctional repetition of rearranging the ownership control structure. This continual change locks the organization into bad choices and sends it into a downward spiral. Acknowledging the mixed motive nature of inter-partner relationships, we incorporate cooperative versus competitive dynamics manifested in shared control arrangements. We propose that shared ownership control lends stability to the IEJV until the initial IEJV agreement is renegotiated; this stability is a result of the cooperative forces of mutual interdependence and mutual forbearance between the partners. However, when the power balance breaks down, the potential for inter-partner conflict increases. When the ownership control structure of the IEJV is restructured, especially multiple times, shared control arrangements become increasingly unstable as behavioral, cultural, and managerial differences are amplified.


Jonsen, K., Maznevski, M., Schneider, S., 2010, "Gender Differences in Leadership – Believing is Seeing: Implications for Managing Diversity", Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, Vol 29(6): 549-572.

Abstract: Purpose – Are there “really” gender differences in leadership? Do beliefs regarding gender differences in leadership differ across cultures? And how do these beliefs influence diversity management? This article aims to demonstrate how different beliefs regarding gender differences and leadership can influence company diversity policies and initiatives. Design/methodology/approach – First, the authors review the research evidence on the relationship between gender and leadership. Then they explore the effects of gender stereotyping. Furthermore, they consider the role of culture on these beliefs. This review serves as the foundation for the discussion of three different perspectives regarding gender and leadership: gender-blind; gender-conscious; and perception-creates-reality (or believing is seeing). Findings – Adhering to these different paradigms can influence actions taken to managing diversity and human resource policies. Revealing these different paradigms can help companies and managers reassess their diversity practices. Originality/value – The paper discusses issues that are of interest to all levels of managers.


Stahl, G., Mäkelä, K., Zander, L., Maznevski, M., 2010, "A Look at the Bright Side of Multicultural Team Diversity", Scandinavian Journal of Management, 26(4): 439-447.

Abstract: Current research on multicultural teams tends to exhibit a bias towards studying the negative effects of team diversity more than the positive. This negative bias has limited our understanding of the conditions that promote the benefits of diversity and of the mechanisms that foster these benefits. In this article, we highlight a complementary perspective, namely the idea that cultural diversity and cultural differences can be an asset rather than a liability. This perspective has been present in the practitioner and anecdotal literature, but has thus far not received much rigorous research attention. Using a lens of Positive Organizational Scholarship (POS), we draw upon recent research on cultural diversity in teams to explore the positive aspects of cross-cultural dynamics in teams and identify some of the processes underlying these effects in more rigorous ways, proposing a future research agenda.


Stahl, G.K., Maznevski, M.L., Voigt, A., Jonsen, K., 2010, "Unravelling the Effects of Cultural Diversity in Teams: A Meta-Analysis of Research on Multicultural Work Groups", Journal of International Business Studies, 41: 690-709.

Abstract: Previous research on the role of cultural diversity in teams is equivocal, suggesting that cultural diversity's effect on teams is mediated by specific team processes, and moderated by contextual variables. To reconcile conflicting perspectives and past results, we propose that cultural diversity affects teams through process losses and gains associated with increased divergence and decreased convergence. We examine whether the level (surface-level vs deep-level) and type (cross-national vs intra-national) of cultural diversity affect these processes differently. We hypothesize that task complexity and structural aspects of the team, such as team size, team tenure, and team dispersion, moderate the effects of cultural diversity on teams. We test the hypotheses with a meta-analysis of 108 empirical studies on processes and performance in 10,632 teams. Results suggest that cultural diversity leads to process losses through task conflict and decreased social integration, but to process gains through increased creativity and satisfaction. The effects are almost identical for both levels and types of cultural diversity. Moderator analyses reveal that the effects of cultural diversity vary, depending on contextual influences, as well as on research design and sample characteristics. We propose an agenda for future research, and identify implications for managers.


Prime, J., Jonsen, K., Carter, N., Maznevski, M.L., 2008, "Managers’ Perceptions of Women and Men Leaders: A Cross Cultural Comparison", International Journal of Cross Cultural Management, 8(2): 171-210.

Abstract: We examined perceptions of managers from four Western European cultural groups about women's and men's leadership. Participants from every cultural group perceived reliable gender-based differences in leadership effectiveness. While some stereotypes varied across cultures, stereotyping patterns were more often linked to participants' gender than to their cultural beliefs. Unexpectedly, gender stereotypes of leaders were least prevalent among Latin respondents compared to those from more egalitarian cultures. In the Nordic and Anglo groups, male participants' stereotypes disparaged women's performance at the most valued leadership competencies. The implications for women's leadership advancement in these different cultural contexts are discussed.


Thomas D., Stahl, G., Ravlin, E., Poelmans, S., Pekerti, A., Maznevski, M., Lazarova, M., Elron, E., Ekelund, B., Cerdin, J-L., Brislin, R., Aycan, Z., Au, K., 2008, "Cultural Intelligence: Domain and Assessment", International Journal of Cross Cultural Management, 8(2): 123-144.

Abstract: The construct of cultural intelligence, recently introduced to the management literature, has enormous potential in helping to explain effectiveness in cross cultural interactions. However, at present, no generally accepted definition or operationalization of this nascent construct exists. In this article, we develop a conceptualization of cultural intelligence that addresses a number of important limitations of previous definitions. We present a concise definition of cultural intelligence as a system of interacting abilities, describe how these elements interact to produce culturally intelligent behavior, and then identify measurement implications.


Wang, H., Schaan, J-L., 2008, "How Much Distance Do We Need?: Revisiting the 'National Cultural Distance Paradox'", Management International Review, 48(3): 263 - 277.

Keywords: Cultural distance; Entry mode; Performance; Multinationals; National cultural distance paradox; Logistic regression; Emerging markets.

Abstract: This study revisits the 'national cultural distance paradox' based on a sample of Japanese foreign direct investment (FDI) in 53 countries and regions over 30 years. Earlier studies on cultural distance assumed linear relationships and showed mixed results. Results suggest that there is a nonlinear (inverted U-shape) relationship between CD and the choice of a joint venture as the preferred market entry mode, and between CD and performance. We also found that the relationship between CD and performance is moderated by entry mode choice: the nonlinear relationship between CD and performance is stronger for joint ventures than for wholly owned subsidiaries.


Wilkinson, T.J., Peng, G., Brouthers, L.E., Beamish, P.W., 2008, "The Diminishing Effect of Cultural Distance on Subsidiary Control", Journal of International Management, 14(2): 93 - 107.

Keywords: Control; Expatriates; Ownership; Cultural distance; International; Emerging markets.

Abstract: This paper explores the diminishing influence of national cultural distance on two subsidiary control issues, expatriate staffing and parent company ownership level of the foreign subsidiary. Previous studies have produced conflicting findings: one stream of research argues that when cultural distance is greater firms increase their level of control; while the other stream suggests that greater cultural distance is associated with a loosening of control. To reconcile these discrepant outcomes we hypothesize and find that subsidiary age moderates the effect of cultural distance on expatriate staffing and ownership. Cultural distance has a significantly greater impact on subsidiary control mechanisms for newer subsidiaries than for older subsidiaries. Implications for future research are discussed.


Bhardwaj, A., Dietz, J., Beamish, P.W., 2007, "Host Country Cultural Influences on Foreign Direct Investment", Management International Review, 47(1): 29 - 50.

Keywords: FDI; Culture; Trust; Location; Emerging markets; International.

Abstract: This paper provides a novel perspective towards understanding the influence of host country culture on the location choices of foreign firms. We argue that host country cultural variables: uncertainty avoidance and trust, influence the location choices of foreign firms such that foreign firms prefer to invest in nations with (1) low levels of uncertainty avoidance and (2) high levels of trust. In addition to direct effects, we hypothesize that uncertainty avoidance moderates the relationship between host country trust and levels of foreign direct investment (FDI) such that the relationship between trust and FDI becomes stronger, as uncertainty avoidance increases. The results in a sample of 43 nations are supportive of the hypothesized main effect of uncertainty avoidance and the moderating effects, and partially supportive of the main effect of trust on FDI, after controlling for economic, human capital, and governance infrastructure variables.


Branzei, O., Vertinsky, I., Camp, R., 2007, "Culture-contingent Signs of Trust in Emergent Relationships", Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 104(1): 61 - 82.

Keywords: Trust; Culture; Signs; Attribution; Emerging markets; Japan.

Abstract: This study develops a culture-contingent model of trust formation in emergent relationships by comparing how trust-warranting signs shape attributions of trustworthiness to unfamiliar trustees in collectivist versus individualist cultures. We predict and find that the effectiveness of dispositional and contextual signs varies systematically depending on trustors' national culture. Collectivists tend to rely less on dispositional signs and more on situational signs than individualists. This difference fosters distinct trust-building pathways. Individualists bestow trust based on a trustee's perceived ability and integrity, collectivists' trusting choices depend to a greater extent on predictable, benevolent interactions with a potential partner. These findings suggest that, in cross-cultural encounters, signs aligned with trustors' cultural expectations hasten trust production. Mismatched signs are impotent, even off-putting.


Xu, D., Pan, Y., Beamish, P.W., 2004, "The Effect of Regulative and Normative Distances on MNE Ownership and Expatriate Strategies", Management International Review, 44(3): 285 - 307.

Keywords: Institutional perspective; Ownership; Expatriates; Japan; International; Emerging markets.

Abstract: Researchers have used cultural distance to explain strategic and operational control mechanisms of the multinational enterprise, yet the construct has failed to yield consistent results. This study proposed two new measures of country differences, regulative and normative distances, from an institutional perspective, and examined their effect on MNE ownership and expatriate strategies. Larger regulative and normative distances were associated with a lower level of equity ownership and smaller presence of expatriates for over 2000 Japanese overseas sub-units.


Harzing, A-W., Maznevski, M.L., 7 Country Collaborators, 2002, "The Interaction Between Language and Culture: A Test of the Cultural Accommodation Hypothesis in Seven Countries", Language and Intercultural Communication: 2(2): 120-139.

Abstract: We investigate the cultural accommodation hypothesis in questionnaire-based research: Do respondents adjust their responses in a way that reflects the cultural values associated with the language of the questionnaire? A test of this hypothesis with a sample of university students in seven countries indicates that cultural accommodation plays an important role in cross-language research.


Maznevski, M.L., Distefano, J.J., Gomez, C.B., Noorderhaven, N.G., Wu, P-C., 2002, "Cultural Dimensions at the Individual Level of Analysis: The Cultural Orientations Framework",  International Journal of Cross-Cultural Management, 2(3): 275-295.

Abstract: This article describes a theoretically-grounded framework of cultural dimensions conceptualized and operationalized at the individual level of analysis, based on the work of anthropologists Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck. We present empirical data gathered from five countries - Canada, Mexico, the Netherlands, Taiwan, and the United States - to assess the validity of the framework. We then use the results to explore how the cultural orientations framework can add insight and new perspectives to critical questions in cross cultural management research.


DiStefano, J.J., Maznevski, M.L., 2000, "Creating Value with Diverse Teams in Global Management", Organizational Dynamics, 29(1): 45-63.

Abstract: Describes a set of skills and principles that turn culturally diverse teams from destroyers or mediocre performers into sustaining value creators. The Map-Bridge-Integrate (MBI) approach is presented to identify and develop an operating mode that unlocks each team's own potential. To map, teams use objective means to describe their cultural differences and apply this understanding to explain past incidents and set up future expectations. To bridge, team members communicate carefully, taking others' cultural backgrounds into account and adapting their own behavior to the team. To integrate, team members manage the team's interaction so that relevant information emerges, conflicts are resolved, and ideas evolve and are built upon. It is argued that in each of these steps, cultural differences can both hinder processes and enhance results. It is concluded that the final outcome is the creation and execution of unique and innovative solutions to complex organizational challenge.


Maznevski, M.L., Chudoba, K.M., 2000, "Bridging Space Over Time: Global Virtual Team Dynamics and Effectiveness", Organization Science, 11(5): 473-792.

Abstract: Global virtual teams are internationally distributed groups of people with an organizational mandate to make or implement decisions with international components and implications. They are typically assigned tasks that are strategically important and highly complex. They rarely meet in person, conducting almost all of their interaction and decision making using communications technology. Although they play an increasingly important role in multinational organizations, little systematic is known about their dynamics or effectiveness. This study built a grounded theory of global virtual team processes and performance over time. We built a template based on Adaptive Structuration Theory (DeSanctis and Poole 1994) to guide our research, and we conducted a case study, observing three global virtual teams over a period of 21 months. Data were gathered using multiple methods, and qualitative methods were used to analyze them and generate a theory of global virtual team dynamics and effectiveness. First, we propose that effective global virtual team interaction comprises a series of communication incidents, each configured by aspects of the team's structural and process elements. Effective outcomes were associated with a fit among an interaction incident's form, decision process, and complexity. Second, effective global virtual teams sequence these incidents to generate a deep rhythm of regular face-to-face incidents interspersed with less intensive, shorter incidents using various media. These two insights are discussed with respect to other literature and are elaborated upon in several propositions. Implications for research and practice are also outlined.


Maznevski, M.L., DiStefano, J.J., 2000, "Global Leaders are Team Players: Developing Global Leaders Through Membership on Global Teams", Human Resource Management, 39(2&3): 195-208.

Abstract: Global teams today make an increasing number of decisions in multinational organizations, addressing challenges broad in scope and critical to performance. An additional role of global teams is discussed here—providing ideal training for future global leaders. After reviewing the knowledge and skills global leaders need, the article describes three group processes for global team effectiveness: mapping, bridging, and Integrating. The effective global team as a rich con- text for developing global leadership knowledge and skills is then explored. Specific ways in which human resource managers can support global teams to maximize both team performance and global leadership development are identified.


Maznevski, M.L., 1994, "Understanding our Differences: Performance in Decision-Making Groups with Diverse Members", Human Relations, 47(5): 531-552.

Abstract: The purpose of this article is to develop a model to explain performance in decision-making groups characterized by high diversity in composition. It begins with a brief discussion on the nature and effects of diversity. Previous research on group performance is then reviewed with the general conclusion that diverse groups perform less well than homogeneous ones do. This conclusion is challenged by closely examining a small group of studies specifically researching the effects of diversity, and it is shown that diversity can enhance a group's performance if it is integrated. Communication is proposed as an integrating mechanism, and a theory of communication in terms of preconditions is described. This theory is then used to develop propositions concerning the relationships among diversity, integration, and performance in decision-making groups. Implications for research and practice are discussed.


Lane, H.W., Beamish, P.W., 1990, "Cross-Cultural Cooperative Behavior in Joint Ventures in LDCs", Management International Review, (Special Issue, pg. 87-102). Reprinted in H.W. Lane, J.J. Di Stefano and M. Maznevski, International Management Behaviour, 4/E, Oxford UK, Blackwell 2000: 249 – 262.

Keywords: Emerging markets; Studies; Problems; Organizational behavior; LDCs; Joint ventures; International; Decision making; Cross cultural.

Abstract: North American behavioral patterns and cultural influences that may be barriers to increased global effectiveness are discussed. These influences on the process of establishing and managing joint ventures in less developed countries (LDC) are examined, namely, in Latin America, Africa, Southeast Asia, and the Caribbean region. Developing a business in the Third World is a long-term investment. An unwillingness to spend the requisite amount of time in a country may be indicative of an unrealistic superiority complex. Identifying and selecting a partner is perhaps the most important consideration in establishing a cooperative venture. Good local partners are more apt to have access to competent local managers than are foreign firms. The use of many local managers is recommended to ensure that the foreign parent acquires the necessary knowledge of the local economy, culture, and politics. In the joint ventures investigated, a turnaround of poor performers involved a rethinking of attitudes by the foreign parent toward the value of the local partners.


Wright, L.L., Lane, H.W., Beamish, P.W., 1988, "International Management Research: Lessons From The Field", International Studies of Management and Organization, 18(3): 55 - 71.

Keywords: Emerging markets; Research; Problems; Organizational behavior; Management; International; Field study.

Abstract: Clinical field research shows promise in addressing the organizational and strategic adaptation issues which currently face organizations operating internationally. Clinical research is by no means appropriate in every case, but it does have certain benefits. It provides the best data for building theory, it accommodates data that fall outside accepted paradigms and narrow hypotheses. Clinical research is suited to larger, more complex areas, it may provide more significant results than broader, extensive surveys. However, international field research is beset with problems, such as: 1. the nature of the research topic, 2. cultural bias, 3. language problems, 4. incomplete research design, 5. limited access to sites, 6. confidentiality and trust, 7. analysis and communication of results, and 8. time, expense, and operational difficulties. Before starting, it is important to develop a precise framework and to be as rigorous in the research design as possible. 


Non-Refereed Articles

Beamish, P.W., 2011, "Thinking Locally, Managing Globally", China Daily, European Edition (12).

Abstract: The article analyzes the challenges for Chinese companies entering foreign markets. It reviews the basic requirements for competing globally and evaluates the degree to which Chinese companies align with these requirements. The article posits that MNEs are now committed to thinking locally and managing globally by managing overseas subsidiaries as an integrated network. However, most Chinese companies have yet to develop a transnational perspective with the corresponding business strategy. To have a global vision and adapt to local variations, Chinese companies need to acquire the cultural know-how underlying local market needs, to develop sufficient qualified management talent, and to facilitate long-term organizational learning.


Beamish, P.W., 2009, "Book Review of 'The Chinese Business Environment' by F. Jiang and B. Stening", Journal of Asian Business, 23(3): 4 - 5.

Keywords: Emerging markets; FDI; Joint ventures.

Abstract: This is a book of journal article abstracts which deal with the Chinese business environment. It draws from published material relevant to foreign firms engaged in, or seeking to engage in, business in mainland China. The editors have annotated nearly 1,000 articles from a wide range of journals, published between 1990-2006. In addition, they have indexed all the articles against 16 subject areas: General, Institutional Environment, Economic Environment, Cultural Environment, Determinants and Patterns of Foreign Direct Investment in China, Foreign Direct Investment Entry Modes/Strategies, Joint Venture Partner Selection, Foreign Direct Investment Location Choice within China, Foreign Direct Investment Venture and other Foreign Business Management, Foreign Direct Investment Performance Evaluation, Negotiations, Human Resource Management, Markets and Marketing Management, Accounting and Financial Management, Ethics, Governance.


Beamish, P.W., 2007, "Invited Commentary on 'Majestica' Case", Modern Weekly, April 14 (in Chinese), B33.

Keywords: Control systems; Corporate culture; Negotiation; Market entry; Emerging markets.

Abstract: Majestica Hotels Inc., a leading European operator of luxury hotels, was trying to reach an agreement with Commercial Properties of Shanghai regarding the management contract for a new hotel in Shanghai. A series of issues require resolution for the deal to proceed, including length of contract term, name, staffing and many other control issues. Majestica was reluctant to make further concessions for fear that doing so might jeopardize its service culture, arguably the key success factor in this industry. At issue was whether Majestica should adopt a contingency approach and relax its operating philosophy, or stick to its principles, even if it meant not entering a lucrative market.


Beamish, P.W., 2006, "The Necessary Attitude for Real International Success", Peking University Business Review (in Chinese), 29(12): 44-48.

Keywords: Centricity; Emerging markets; Global economy; Business attitudes; International success.

Abstract: Survival for many companies, whether Chinese or foreign, depends on enhancing international success. While there are many factors that influence such success, one of the most important will be managements' international business attitude. The impact of attitudes on international performance is great. An earlier study of 38 Canadian multinational corporations considered the relationship between centricity (defined as a person's attitude towards foreign cultures) and international performance. It found the level of international sales in what are called "geocentric" organizations, double that of companies with other attitudes. This is not a difference that can be ignored by Chinese companies as they increasingly engage in the global economy.


Kelly, M.J., Schaan, J-L., 2006, "Market Leaders Look to Asia for Innovation", National Post (6).

Keywords: Emerging markets; Multinational corporations; Research & development; Knowledge management.

Abstract: More than 50% of the 300 largest R&D spending firms in the world now conduct R&D in India and China, and 75% of new R&D sites planned over the next three years will be in these two countries. Companies seeking market leadership will increasingly need to find ways of accessing knowledge and talent globally. Managing and integrating complex knowledge from around the world requires companies to develop organizational structures and processes that support learning and knowledge acquisition. It also requires significant investments in the development of a cadre of global managers who are comfortable dealing across both cultural and organizational boundaries.


Beamish, P.W., 1997, "Internationalization as Strategic Change at The Ivey Business School", Management Education Review (in Korean), 1(2): 53 - 68.

Keywords: Management education; Internationalization; Strategic change; Emerging markets.

Abstract: As all business schools have discovered, internationalization is not easy. It legitimately means different things to different people; it is constantly evolving; expensive in time and money; multifaceted; and to those of us who are among the committed minority, absolutely essential for institutional relevance. The purpose of this paper is to share the recent experiences of the Richard Ivey School of Business (formerly Western Business School), Ontario, Canada, in its attempt to further internationalize its faculty, curriculum, and programs. It is not intended as a general guideline or blueprint for what other business schools should or should not do because internationalization in its operationalization is situation specific: greatly dependent on the prevailing institutional culture, history, resources, and attitudes. The basic premise of this paper is that internationalization is an exercise in strategic change. A change framework we have found useful provides a structure for the discussion. The first part of the chapter provides an overview of the school and its major international programs and emphasis. This context is essential to understanding the current stage of the school's internationalization activities, as described in the second section. It looks at the school's activities in relation to a framework on 'Achieving Readiness for Strategic Change.' Here the change targets are the development of awareness, capability, and commitment. The second part concludes with a review of some of the school's yet-to-be resolved questions.


Calof, J., Beamish, P.W., 1994, "The Right Attitude for International Success", Business Quarterly, 59(1): Autumn, 105 - 110. Reprinted in Strategic Management, 4/E.  Edited by Paul Beamish and Patrick Woodcock, Burr Ridge, Illinois; Irwin, 1996.

Keywords: Success; Multinational corporations; Management styles; Culture; Attitudes; Emerging markets.

Abstract: International business success: most companies need it, federal governments want more firms to have it, and managers are trying to figure out how to get it. For many small and large companies, survival depends on enhancing international success. While there are many factors that influence such success, one of the most important is managements' international business attitude. The impact of attitudes on international performance is so great that some theorists have suggested that future international management research should focus almost exclusively on it. The paper examined the relationship between centricity (defined as a person's attitude toward foreign cultures) and international performance in a sample of 38 firms. The firms whose senior executives responsible for international decisions possessed a geocentric mind set had international sales at a level twice that for firms when the senior executives possessed other attitudes. (A short centricity assessment form is included in the paper.)


Poynter, T.A., White, R.E., 1990, "Making the Horizontal Organization Work", Ivey Business Quarterly, 54(3): 73 - 77.

Keywords: Emerging markets; Horizontal organizations; International competition; Multinationals; Competitive advantage; Strategy.

Abstract: These authors posit the horizontal organization, which consists of a set of geographically dispersed, value-adding activities, as an alternative to the matrix structure that many organizations find expensive and unstable. However, developing a horizontal organization is a challenge in itself: Multinationals with successful horizontal structures develop a series of organizational and strategic approaches that allow both a horizontal and vertical structure to co-exist. This article identifies five activities that are needed to create and maintain a horizontal organization.

Collaborative decision making is not possible unless an organization has shared decision premises, a common culture or a set of business values. Organizations have to treat value infusion as a broadly-based socialization process. Secondly, organizations have to prevent the establishment of narrowly defined vertical fiefdoms where senior executives develop either a global or local bias. The authors recommend senior executives be given responsibilities in both areas and thus have several subordinates with different orientations; a network of horizontal relationships will naturally emerge. Third, senior managers must create, maintain, and defend an organizational context that promotes lateral decision making oriented toward the achievement of competitive advantage worldwide. In a horizontal organization, a large part of the corporate as well as local general manager's role involves facilitating lateral processes. Because of complex interdependences, horizontal organizations cannot be "run simply by the numbers." Summary output measures for individual subunits must be accompanied by a review of decisions and actions behind those measures. Lastly, meaningful assessment of people in the horizontal organization is based upon their demonstrated willingness to collaborate for the overall good of the enterprise.



Lane, H.W., Maznevski, M.L., 2014, "International Management Behavior", 7th, Wiley Publishing.

Abstract: (unavailable)


Beamish, P.W., Wang, H. (eds), 2011, "An Anthology of Ivey Business Journal", Beijing, China, Huazhang Books (in Chinese).

Abstract: Ivey Business Journal (IBJ), first published in 1933, was launched with the objective of improving the practice of management. Each issue tackles subject matters that are important to managers everywhere: Innovation, Leadership, Knowledge Management, and other topics that managers need to know more about to steer their firms to success. This collection of 23 IBJ articles was selected for their relevance to Chinese managers.

China and India (4)

CEOs & Boards (2)

Leadership (4)
7. Great Leadership is Good Leadership
8. The Cross-Enterprise Leader
9. Leader's Edge: An Interview with C.K. Prahalad

Innovation & Knowledge (3)

Human Resources (2)

Globalization (4)
18. Negotiating: The Top Ten Ways That Culture Can Affect Your Negotiation

Best Practice (4)


Hubbard, G., Beamish, P.W., 2011, "Strategic Management: Thinking, Analysis, Action", 4th, Sydney, Pearson Education Australia.

Abstract: Chapter 11 International strategy


Delios, A., Beamish, P.W., Lu, J., 2010, "International Business: An Asia Pacific Perspective", 2nd, Singapore, Prentice Hall/Pearson Education South Asia.

Keywords: Emerging markets; Asia; International Business.

Abstract: This book contains 14 chapters divided into three sections, and 15 cases.


Beamish, P.W., Chen, X. (eds), 2001, "An Anthology from the Journal of International Business Studies (Simplified Chinese)", Beijing, China Machine Press/ Huazhang Graphics Company.
Keywords: Emerging markets.

Abstract: This is a collection of the most influential articles from the Journal of International Business Studies (JIBS) for China. Chosen from JIBS 30 years of publication, articles were selected on the basis of both citation analyses and relevance to the existing global business environment, and included all of the JIBS Decade Award papers.


Beamish, Paul W., 1999, "International Business Cases", Beijing, China Machine Press/ Huazhang Graphics Company, (in Chinese).

Keywords: Emerging markets; International business.

Abstract: International Business books take a variety of forms. Some constitute a survey of the international dimensions of the functional areas; some emphasize the global environment of business; while others adopt a general manager's orientation and focus on the strategic issues. The cases in this volume emphasize the first two of these three forms.

1) The Emerging Global Economy
2) Differences in Political Economy
3) Differences in Culture
4) International Trade Theory
5) The Global Trading System
6) Foreign Direct Investment
7) Regional Economic Integration
8) The Foreign Exchange Market
9) The Global Monetary System
10) Global Strategy
11) Entering Foreign Markets
12) Global Marketing
13) Global Operations Management
14) Global Human Resources Management


Beamish, P.W., Killing, J.P. (editors), 1997, "Cooperative Strategies: Asian Pacific Perspectives", San Francisco, The New Lexington Press.

Keywords: Emerging markets; Joint ventures; Alliance; Asia; China; Japan; Korea.

Abstract: This is one of three geographically targeted volumes in The Cooperative Strategies Series. The series explores the extent, nature, operations, and environment of cross-border cooperative linkages in the North American, European, and Asian Pacific regions. The series investigates the magnitude, nature, operations and environments of new global cooperative business arrangements such as joint ventures, strategic alliances, research and development partnerships, consortia, technology transfers and licensing, management service, franchising, and cross-manufacturing agreements.



Maznevski, M., Steger, U., Amann, W., 2007, Managing Complexity in Global Organizations as the Meta-Challenge, in Steger, U., Amann, W., Maznevski, M. (Eds), Managing Complexity in Global Organizations, West Sussex: Wiley, pp 3-14.

Abstract: Complexity is currently often considered the latest business buzzword—it reflects a current common reality. This chapter focuses on complexity, a real leadership challenge, which every executive faces in today's world. Initially, complexity was multiplied to its current heightened level because globalization entails a far-reaching erosion of boundaries, a process that is still ongoing. Many types of boundaries have faded: trade liberalization has substantially alleviated the flow of goods, capital, people, and knowledge around the globe. However, the world has clearly moved beyond the key triad markets. Subsequently, internationalizing companies from developed and developing economies try to tap the benefits of globalization to an unprecedented degree and therefore face—as well as contribute to—the complexity of eroding boundaries. In addition, complexity is seen as a core challenge of present and future companies. It cannot be simplified and will not disappear in the near future. Managing complexity therefore becomes a core competency of top executives and management.


Sharp, D.J., 1999, International Business: The New Ethics, in Fleck, M., Managing For Success, Toronto: Harper Collins.

Abstract: This article discusses ethical international business management issues such as questionable payments, transfer pricing and the inequity of power between multinationals and developing countries. It concludes that managers should execute their responsibilities in a manner that is fair and equitable to both their shareholders and the stakeholders in other countries. Where a difference between home and local values exist, managers should apply the higher standard, thus at the very least meeting the expectations of all countries.

The paper also argues that successful international management requires cultural sensitivity - recognizing that there are alternative and equally acceptable ways of both doing and interpreting things. Managers should learn to distinguish between practices that are acceptable, legitimate and normal according to the standards of the host country, as well as those that are not.

The author suggests that multinationals establish a corporate code of conduct that clearly details the values the company subscribes to. This code should be flexible and culturally sensitive as well as broad enough to allow managers both direction and support. The code should also be backed by corporate culture, values and reward systems that recognize higher risks of international operations and reward managers for complying with the corporate code of conduct.

While behaving ethically may be costly in terms of lost profits in the short run, a good corporate reputation is both a valuable asset in the long run and attracts customers and prospective employees.


Slaughter, K.E., 1999, Communicating Across Cultures: The Case of Midstream and PetroVietnam, in Beamish, P.W., Safarian, A.E., North American Firms in East Asia, Toronto, ON, Canada: University of Toronto Press, pg. 169-186.

Abstract: This chapter examines the unsuccessful attempt by a consortium of Alberta companies to secure a contract to build a natural gas processing plant in Vietnam. The Canadian negotiation efforts were beset by a variety of failures to communicate effectively within the loosely organized consortium. The consortium failed to understand the Vietnamese cultural context, establish close personal relations in a slow negotiation process and hence to communicate effectively across cultures.

Canadians had to learn to work with Vietnamese stakeholders at both the business and the political levels. The business level includes continuing on-going negotiations with PetroVietnam as well as investigating and understanding recently established legal, taxation, and banking systems. The political level included persuading the Ministry of Heavy Industry about the merits of doing business with Alberta's oil and gas industry. Contacts needed to be developed and maintained. This chapter provides a list of what the consortium should have done in the communication process and thus provides some clear steps necessary to facilitate any business venture.

The author also presents a framework that provides a checklist for communication planning. Communication is an iterative process that requires a clear understanding of audiences. The article highlights key components of communication planning analysis that cultural differences affects: the objective determination, the receiver analysis, and the analysis of the environment. A well planned communication strategy and analysis of the Vietnamese environment would have directed the consortium to develop a relationship with the Vietnamese as their prime objectives and understand the potential problems Vietnam's history could cause for a foreign joint venture.

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