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International Business Institute

Europe Article and Book Chapter Abstracts

Europe Article and Book Chapter Abstracts

A Bibliography of Ivey-authored Europe-Related Publications
As of August 29, 2017

Refereed Articles

Arregle, J.L., Miller, T.L., Hitt, M.A., Beamish, P.W., 2016, "How Does Regional Institutional Complexity Affect MNE Internationalization?", Journal of International Business Studies, 47(6): 697 - 722.

Keywords: regional strategy; institutions; semiglobalization; foreign direct investment; mixed models.

Abstract: International business research is only beginning to develop theory and evidence highlighting the importance of supranational regional institutions to explain firm internationalization. In this context, we offer new theory and evidence regarding the effect of a region’s “institutional complexity” on FDI decisions by multinational enterprises (MNEs). We define a region’s institutional complexity using two components, regional institutional diversity and number of countries. We explore the unique relationships of both components with MNEs’ decisions to internationalize into countries within the region. Drawing on semiglobalization and regionalization research and institutional theory, we posit an inverted U-shaped relationship between a region’s institutional diversity and MNE internationalization: extremely low or high regional institutional diversity has negative effects on internationalization, but moderate diversity has a positive effect on internationalization. Larger numbers of countries within the region reduces MNE internationalization in a linear fashion. We find support for these predicted relationships in multi-level analyses of 698 Japanese MNEs operating in 49 countries within nine regions. Regional institutional complexity is both a challenge and an opportunity for MNEs seeking advantages through the aggregation and arbitrage of individual country factors.


Monzani, L.M., Braun, S., van Dick, R.v.D., 2016, "The moderator role of organizational identification in the relation between authentic leadership and followers’ silence intentions", German Journal of Human Resource Management: Zeitschrift fuer Personalforschung, 30: 3 - 4.

Abstract : Organizational silence is a state of affairs in which employees refrain from voicing problematic issues at work. It often results from the dilemma between considering the short-term interests of the leader, who might perceive voicing problems as disloyal, and the long-term interests of the organization, which might suffer severe costs because of silence. In this article we propose a theoretical model that bridges authentic leadership and organizational identification to test their joint effect on organizational silence responses (exit, loyalty and neglect). Based on previous work, we hypothesized that authentic leadership is positively related to employees’ loyalty (a passive yet constructive response). However, in dilemmatic situations this effect should be buffered by a high organizational identification (as a result of conflicting loyalties). Similarly, in such situations, we predicted that the influence of authentic leadership on employees’ destructive responses may be counter-productive if not matched with a high organizational identification. We tested our proposed model with an online vignette study that involved 458 employees from German-speaking countries from diverse work sectors. We used a realistic scenario comprising a dilemmatic situation, in which a decision between voice and silence had to be made. Our results partially support the hypotheses. Implications for management and future research directions are discussed.


Kim, D., Davison, M., Odegaard, F., 2015, "Do Retailers Set Optimal Prices in the Case of Retail Gasoline Market?", International Journal of Revenue Management, 8(3/4): 241 - 259.

Keywords: Gasoline prices; Petrol prices; Local competitors; Competitor prices; Asymmetric response; Oligopoly; Optimal pricing; Gasoline retailers; Petrol retailers; Price setting.

Abstract: How should gasoline retailers respond to other competing retailers and to changes in commodity gasoline prices to set their own prices over time? This question opens the door to an important discussion on price-setting strategies in the retail gasoline market. Retail gasoline price data, both panel and time series, is of great interest in the economic arena since it allows the testing of many theories about price formation, oligopolistic pricing, and consumer search. We present results from a unique new dataset, including daily sales, cost, and price data from 100 retail gasoline stations in a western European country. We empirically test various economic models to confirm, in full or in part, some earlier results based on North American data. We discuss a special case in which we empirically fit a model where retailers set prices partly in response to local competitors' prices.


King, M.R., 2015, "Political bargaining and multinational bank bailouts", Journal of International Business Studies, 46(2): 206 - 222.

Keywords: business/government interaction and relations; political strategies; bargaining; financial crisis; banking and finance; markets and institutions.

Abstract: This article examines the role of political bargaining and state institutions in explaining variation in state support to multinational banks (MNBs). International business theory predicts that multinational enterprises will engage in political activities to gain a competitive advantage over rivals. I hypothesize that MNBs with greater bargaining power and favorable institutions received state capital injections on more attractive terms than foreign rivals. I test this hypothesis by studying the October 2008 state recapitalizations of MNBs by the UK, France, Germany, the United States, and Switzerland. I measure the relative attractiveness of state bailouts by comparing the bank stock price reactions when the bailouts were announced. The stock prices of MNBs receiving more favorable state support outperformed foreign rivals, reflecting the competitive advantage gained. States imposed more punitive terms on banks when political and legal institutions were more favorable and MNBs were unable to form a coalition. States that are highly dependent on banks and where state bailouts were large relative to GDP were also more punitive. These findings highlight the importance of political behavior as a tool of strategy, and the need for coordination on banking policy across states to reduce moral hazard.


Van Essen, M., Strike, V., Camey, M., Sapp, S., 2015, "The Resilient Family Firm: Stakeholder Outcomes and Institutional Effects", Corporate Governance-An International Review, 23(3): 167 - 183.

Abstract: Research Question/Issue: Our study seeks to explain the relationship between publicly listed family-controlled firms (FCFs) and investor and employee outcomes before and during the global financial crisis. Theoretically, we develop hypotheses suggesting that FCF resilience is beneficial to both investor and employees. Employing a large firm-level data set of 2,949 firms across 27 European countries, we test the hypotheses that FCFs' long-term orientation makes them resilient to the effects of economic shocks. In addition, using hierarchical linear modeling we evaluate family firm investor and employee outcomes, and the moderating impact of legal institutions protecting minority investors and employees. Research Findings/Insights: We find that FCFs financially outperform non-FCFs during the financial crisis, beginning in 2007 and reaching its lowest point in 2009, but show no significant differences during the stable-growth period between 2004 and 2006. We evaluate two employee outcomes: downsizing and wage decreases. We find that FCFs are less likely to downsize their workforce or cut wages in both pre-crisis and crisis conditions. Based upon hypotheses founded in the comparative capitalisms logic, we find significant institutional effects that are contrary to our predictions. Our findings suggest that investors and employees of FCFs achieve more favorable outcomes for their interests when the rules pertaining to investor protection and their enforcement are poorly developed. Theoretical/Academic Implications: We contribute to the emerging literature on the institution-based view of comparative corporate governance by demonstrating that family-controlled firms' stakeholder outcomes are contingent upon legal protection for employees and investors under contrasting economic circumstances. Practitioner/Policy Implications: Family owners, employees and minority investors should consider both firm-level and country-level governance institutions when investing in different countries, especially in times of economic crisis as jurisdiction-level institutions and firm ownership choices produce variable outcomes for different stakeholders in both crisis and non-crisis conditions.


Arjalies, D-L., 2014, "Challengers from within Economic Institutions: A Second-Class Social movement? A Response to Déjean, Giamporcaro, Gond, Leca and Penalva-Icher’s Comment on French SRI", Journal of Business Ethics, 123(2): 257 - 262.

Keywords: Institutional Change; Mainstreaming, Socially Responsible Investment; Social Movement; Responsible Investing.

Abstract: In a recent comment made about my paper “A Social Movement Perspective on Finance: How Socially Responsible Invetsment Mattered” (J Bus Ethics 92:57–78, 2010), published in this journal, Déjean, Giamporcaro, Gond, Leca and Penalva-Icher (J Bus Ethics 112: 205-212, 2013) strongly criticize the social movement perspective adopted on French SRI. They both contest the empirical analysis of the movement and the possibility for insiders to trigger institutional change towards sustainability. This answer aims to address the different concerns raised throughout their comment and illuminate the differences between both approaches. It first explains why SRI in France can be considered as a social movement, despite not being protest-oriented. It then reflects on the dangers of systematically associating societal change with radical activism. It concludes by elaborating on the importance of acknowledging the potential contribution of reformist movements from within the economic institutions to the enhancement of the social good.


Schotter, A., Teagarden, M., 2014, "Protecting Intellectual Property in China", Sloan Management Review (MIT), 55(4): 41 - 48.

Abstract: Intellectual property (IP) protection is the No. 1 challenge for multinational corporations operating in China. According to the U.S. government, China accounted for nearly 80% of all IP thefts from U.S.-headquartered organizations in 2013, amounting to an estimated $300 billion in lost business. Among European manufacturers, the loss of IP in China reduced potential profits by 20%.The effects from IP leakage in China are ubiquitous. They are visible in counterfeited items including toys, luxury goods, automotive and aircraft parts, pharmaceuticals and other complex high-tech products. But IP violations go beyond products. They extend to pirated operational processes and the replication of entire business and service models. Although multinational corporations can’t afford to stay away from China, in order to remain competitive they must develop mechanisms that enable them to shift some of their innovation capabilities to China safely, without losing critical know-how. To learn about how companies are managing the China IP protection challenge, we studied more than 50 multinational corporations. We identified nine IP protection practices that can be used as a web of protection including (1) Developing strategic clarity; (2) Collecting business intelligence; (3) Following legal fundamentals; (4) Creating interest alignment; (5) Disaggregating processes; (6) Implementing a controls discipline; (7) Creating dynamism; (8) Managing human resources strategically and; (9) Engaging in focused corporate social responsibility activities. These practices allow corporations to expand faster within China and across other emerging markets while enhancing local and global innovativeness, which leads to improved performance.


Tanganelli, D., Schaan, J-L., 2014, "Japanese Subsidiaries in the European Union: Entry Modes and Performance", Cogent Economics & Finance, 2(1): 1 - 10.

Abstract: Japanese Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in the European Union and its performance were analysed in this work. Three different FDI or entry modes used by Japanese companies to enter the European market were compared, and the presence of a relationship between the selected entry mode and the performance of the subsidiary was investigated. We found that more than half of the Japanese investments in Europe took the form of new ventures, approximately 40% were joint ventures and less than 6% were acquisitions. We found that no specific entry mode performed better than another.


Arjalies, D-L., Hobeika, S, Ponssard, J.P., Poret, S., 2013, "Le rôle de la labellisation dans la construction d’un marché: Le cas de l’ISR en France, [The role of labellisation in the design of a market: The case of SRI in France]", Revue Francaise de Gestion, 39(236): 93 - 107.

Keywords: Investissement Socialement Responsable (ISR); Investisseurs particuliers; Labels; Socially Responsible Investment (SRI); Retail Investors; Labels.

Abstract: The attractiveness of SRI (Socially Responsible Investment) for retail investors in France has remained limited in spite of the launch of labeling schemes and a substantial growth of SRI funds. The article analyzes why the labeling impact has been limited. Our framework is based on the interaction of three elements: labels and information asymmetry, the labeling organizations and the selection of information attributes, the induced competition between labels. Two main factors explain the limited impact of labels. First, the information attributes disclosed by the labels reflect the viewpoint of asset managers rather than the one of retail investors. Second, the distribution of SRI by banking and insurance networks is not a factor of competitive advantage.


Arjalies, D-L., Mundy, J., 2013, "The Use of Management Control Systems to Formulate and Implement CSR Strategy: A Levers of Control Perspective", Management Accounting Research, 24(4): 284 - 300. Keywords : Corporate Social Responsibility; CSR Strategy; Levers of Control; Management Control Systems; Sustainability.

Abstract: Little is known about the role of management control systems (MCS) in managing the strategic processes that underpin Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). To enhance our understanding of this phenomenon, this study employs Simons’ (1995) levers of control framework to explore how organizations leverage MCS in different ways in order to drive strategic renewal and trigger organizational change while simultaneously supporting society’s broader sustainability agenda. Drawing on data gathered from France’s largest listed companies – members of the CAC 40 – we provide insights into the structures and processes that companies employ to design, implement and monitor their CSR strategy. In doing so, we provide evidence of the way that organisations seek to attain their CSR objectives, and of the relationship between the management of CSR and other business processes. Of particular interest is the role of the levers of control in enabling managers to identify and manage threats and opportunities associated with CSR strategy, thus forming risk management processes that support organisations in their attainment of strategic objectives. Furthermore, the study provides evidence suggesting the use of MCS has the potential to contribute to society’s broader sustainability agenda through processes that enable innovation, communication, reporting, and the identification of threats and opportunities.


Arregle, J.L., Miller, T.L., Hitt, M.A., Beamish, P.W., 2013, "Do Regions Matter? An Integrated Institutional and Semi-Globalization Perspective on the Internationalization of MNEs", Strategic Management Journal, 34(8): 910 - 934. Reprinted in P.J. Buckley and P.N. Ghauri (eds) 2015, International Business Strategy: Theory and Practice.  New York, Routledge.

Keywords: Strategic foreign investments; Institutional environment; Semi-globalization; Regional strategy; Location of foreign subsidiaries.

Abstract: Traditional research suggests a relationship between country-level institutions and the location choices of MNEs. However, more recent theory suggests MNEs also focus on regions (semi-globalization). Therefore, this study examines institutional effects in the context of semi-globalization by considering the influences of three formal institutions (i.e., regulatory control, political democracy, capital investments) of countries and geographic regions on MNEs’ location choices of internationalization. We use a sample of Japanese MNEs operating in 45 countries within eight regions. The results show that their degree of internationalization into a country is influenced by both country and regional institutional environments. Additionally, a semi-globalization perspective provides better explanatory power than does the country-level perspective. These results present a new perspective on how MNEs consider institutional environments in their international strategy.


Hessels, J., Parker, S.C., 2013, "Constraints, Internationalization and Growth: A Cross-Country Analysis of European SMEs", Journal of World Business, 48(1): 137 - 148.

Abstract: Small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) are known to face barriers which limit their ability to grow. We build on resource dependency theory and the resource-based view to investigate how SMEs are able to achieve venture growth in the face of these constraints by adopting internationalization and inter-firm collaboration strategies. Based on a large sample of European SMEs, our research demonstrates the importance of distinguishing between specific dimensions of internationalization and inter-firm collaborations, in particular between exporting and importing, and between formal and informal collaborations – as well as context-specificity of these strategies with respect to the types of constraints SMEs face.


Martin, G.S., Keating, M.A., Resick, C.J., Szabo, E., Kwan, H.K., Peng, A., 2013, "The meaning of leader integrity: A comparative study across the Anglo, Asian, and Germanic Cultures", Leadership Quarterly, 24(3): 445 - 461.

Abstract: The current study explores and compares the meaning of leader integrity in six societies representing three culture clusters, including Ireland and the U.S. (Anglo cluster), Germany and Austria (Germanic Europe cluster), as well as China (PRC) and Hong Kong (Confucian Asia cluster). Reponses were obtained from 189 managers using an on-line, open-response questionnaire and analyzed through a data-driven thematic analysis of the manifest and latent content of the responses. Looking within cultures, findings provide initial evidence of the culture-specific attributes and behaviors that leaders with integrity are expected to possess and convey toward others. Looking across cultures, comparative analysis revealed nine common themes that were endorsed in all or a majority of the societies: these include Guided by Strong Personal Moral Code/Values, Value–Behavior Consistency, Word–Action Consistency, Honest, Fair and Just, Openness and Transparency, Consideration and Respect for Others, Sense of Responsibility for/toward Others, and Abiding by Rules and Regulations. Implications of the findings are discussed.


Teagarden, M., Schotter, A., 2013, "Leveraging Intellectual Capital in Innovation Networks: Growing, Sharing and Exploiting Mindshare", Organizational Dynamics, 42(4): 281 - 289.

Abstract: As we transition toward a worldwide knowledge economy, where and how innovation gets done is shifting dramatically. Leading innovators have learned to leverage elite talent in networked knowledge clusters around the world including places like Shanghai, Bangalore, Rio de Janeiro, Cairo, Tel Aviv and Saigon. No longer do the US, Japan and Western Europe remain dominant sites for innovation; instead emerging markets play an increasingly more important role in the knowledge creation activities of multinational enterprises (MNE). Consequently, many MNEs have shifted away from centralized R&D to new forms of knowledge creation—including offshoring, outsourcing, and networking, and this particularly in industries where talent-related challenges threaten innovation success. The fieldwork underlying our study showed that successful networked innovators create talent architectures to grow, share and exploit strategically mindshare—the aggregated exploitable sum of what individual knowledge workers know and how they use this knowledge. The combined global mindshare of talented employees creates crucial levels of innovation and economies of ideas, the basic building blocks of knowledge based competitiveness. We looked at people practices in innovation networks to identify what leading networked innovator organizations do to achieve success in the knowledge economy.


Arjalies, D-L., 2012, "Qu’est-ce que l’Investissement Socialement Responsable? [What is Socially Responsible Investment?]", La Revue du Financier, 34(193): 7 - 19.

Keywords: Fonds éthiques; Investissement socialement responsable (ISR); Ethical Funds; Responsible Investing.

Abstract: This article studies the Socially Responsible Investment (SRI)’s forms and purposes from the 1920s until today in the United States and Europe. Studying both SRI Funds’ theoretical background and features, it provides an overview of the different types of SRI funds according to their societal or economic background. In doing so, the article offers a better understanding of the complexity and the diversity of SRI and of the problems faced today by the asset management sector.


Congregado, E., Golpe, A., Parker, S.C., 2012, "The Dynamics of entrepreneurship: Hysteresis, Business Cycles and Government Policy", Empirical Economics, 43(3): 1239 - 1261.

Abstract: This article estimates two unobserved components models to explore the macrodynamics of entrepreneurship in Spain and the USA. We ask whether entrepreneurship exhibits hysteresis, defined as a macrodynamic structure in which the cyclical component of entrepreneurship has persistent effects on the natural rate of entrepreneurship. We find evidence of hysteresis in Spain, but not the USA, while in Spain business cycle output variations significantly affect future rates of entrepreneurship. The article discusses implications of the findings for the design of entrepreneurship policies.


Parker, S.C., Congregado, E., Golpe, A., 2012, "Is entrepreneurship a leading or lagging indicator of the business cycle? Evidence from UK self-employment data", International Small Business Journal, 30(7): 736 - 753.

Abstract: Previous studies provide suggestive evidence that entrepreneurship varies with the state of the business cycle. This article extends the knowledge base by exploring whether the rate of self-employment - a widely used measure of entrepreneurship - is a lagging or leading indicator of the business cycle. The study, which utilizes time series UK data on aggregate output, unemployment and self-employment rates, is robust to structural breaks in the cyclical relationships between these variables. The study finds evidence of significant bi-directional causality: that is, entrepreneurship both causes and is caused by business cycles. The covariance of entrepreneurship is positive with respect to output and negative with respect to unemployment.


Parker, S.C., van Praag, M., 2012, "The Entrepreneur's Mode of Entry: Business Takeover or New Venture Start?", Journal of Business Venturing, 27(1): 31 - 46.

Keywords: Business start-up; Business takeover; Entrepreneur; Education; Human capital.

Abstract : We extend the well-known occupational choice model of entrepreneurship by analyzing the mode of entry. Individuals can become entrepreneurs by taking over established businesses or starting up new ventures from scratch. We argue that the new venture creation mode is associated with higher levels of schooling whereas managerial experience, new venture start-up capital requirements and industry-level risk promote the takeover mode. A sample of data on entrepreneurs from the Netherlands provides broad support for these hypotheses, and also bears out a prediction that entrepreneurs whose parents run a family firm tend to invest the least in schooling. We go on to discuss the implications for researchers, entrepreneurs and public policy-makers.


Resick, C.J., Martin, G.S., Keating, M.A., Dickson, M.W., Kwan, H.K., Peng, A., 2011, "What Ethical Leadership Means to Me: Asian, American, and European Perspectives", Journal of Business Ethics, 101(3): 434 - 457.

Abstract: Despite the increasingly multinational nature of the workplace, there have been few studies of the convergence and divergence in beliefs about ethics-based leadership across cultures. This study examines the meaning of ethical and unethical leadership held by managers in six societies with the goal of identifying areas of convergence and divergence across cultures. More specifically, qualitative research methods were used to identify the attributes and behaviors that managers from the People’s Republic of China (the PRC), Hong Kong, the Republic of China (Taiwan), the United States (the U.S.), Ireland, and Germany attribute to ethical and unethical leaders. Across societies, six ethical leadership themes and six unethical leadership themes emerged from a thematic analysis of the open-ended responses. Dominant themes for ethical and unethical leadership for each society are identified and examined within the context of the core cultural values and practices of that society. Implications for theory, research, and management practice are discussed.


Tanganelli, D., Schaan, J-L., 2011, "Ownership Strategy in SMEs’ International Joint Ventures", Journal of Small Business and Entrepreneurship, 24(4): 551 - 566.

Keywords: International joint ventures; SME; Ownership control; European Union.

Abstract: The internationalization of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) through international joint ventures (IJVs) has received limited attention in the international business literature. This study analyzes factors that lead an SME to gain a dominant equity share in an IJV. Three hypotheses are tested using bargaining-power, resource-dependency and transaction cost theories. Analyzing 55 IJVs among 110 European SMEs, we found that a partner’s dominant participation in the IJV ownership is positively related to its investment’s relative importance and the number of its employees. No relation was observed with knowledge transfer, IJV complexity and cultural distance in this ownership decision.


Arjalies, D-L., 2010, "A Social Movement Perspective on Finance: How Socially Responsible Investment Mattered", Journal of Business Ethics, 92(1): 57 - 78.

Keywords: framing; France; institutional change; organizational field; social movements; Socially Responsible Investment (SRI).

Abstract: This study discusses how social movements can influence economic systems. Employing a political-cultural approach to markets, it purports that ‘compromise movements’ can help change existing institutions by proposing new ones. This study argues in favor of the role of social movements in reforming economic institutions. More precisely, Socially Responsible Investment (SRI) movements can help bring SRI concerns into financial institutions. A study of how the French SRI movement has been able to change entrenched institutional logics of the French asset management sector provides wide-ranging support for these arguments. Empirical findings are drawn from a longitudinal case study (1997-2009), based on participative observation, interviews and documentary evidence. Implications for research on social movements, institutional change and SRI are outlined. Lastly, the study provides practitioners with some theoretical keys to understand the pros and cons of ‘SRI labels’.


Johnson, P.F., Leenders, M.R., 2010, "Minding the Supply Savings Gaps", Sloan Management Review (MIT), 51(2): 25 - 31.

Abstract: For most companies, the single largest cost category is the total spend with suppliers. However, figuring out how to identify the best areas for supply savings - and then how to measure and report them presents major challenges. Both understatement and overstatement of supply savings gaps signal the wrong reality, leading to an overemphasis on low-yielding cost saving initiatives, misdirected corporate resources and employees being rewarded for the wrong behavior. Moreover, supply savings gaps conceal the strategic contribution Suppliers can provide. In studying the supply management practices at 30 large North American and European companies, the authors identified a variety of measurement and reporting practices for supply savings. They conclude that correct measurement Of Supply savings is almost impossible and that there are frequently gaps between reported savings and reality. They explore why gaps exist, what practices lead to under and overstatement of savings, the consequences of poor supply savings measurement and what can be done to recognize supply savings gaps. To overcome the measurement and reporting challenges, the authors recommend that executives do three things: Focus on the total cost of ownership; categorize the different types of savings; and hardwire savings to the budget.


Arregle, J.L., Beamish, P.W., Hebert, L., 2009, "The Regional Dimension of MNEs' Foreign Subsidiary Localization", Journal of International Business Studies, 40(1): 86 - 107.

Keywords: Semiglobalization; Regional strategy; Multilevel analysis; Evaluation of current theories; Localization of foreign subsidiaries; Emerging markets.

Abstract: This paper examines the regional effect of MNEs' foreign subsidiary localization. We hypothesize that the number of subsequent foreign subsidiaries in a country is in part determined by a firm's prior foreign subsidiary activity at the regional level. We test our hypotheses using data on 1,076 Japanese MNEs that created 3,466 foreign subsidiaries (1,837 wholly owned FDIs and 1,629 joint ventures) over the period 1996-2001. We use a multi-level Negative Binomial approach with three levels of analysis: localization decisions in a country (49 countries), in a region (six regions), and at the headquarters level. In this way, we test the regional effects controlling for country and corporate dimensions. We also run separate models to differentiate wholly owned and joint venture localization decisions. Our results strongly support the semi-globalization perspective in that the regional level effects are significant and different from the country level effects for all foreign subsidiaries, for wholly owned subsidiaries and for JVs. Japanese MNEs adopt a regional perspective that complements their decisions at the country and firm levels. They seek regional agglomeration benefits and make arbitrage decisions between countries in the same region.


Johnson, P.F., Leenders, M.R., 2009, "Changes in Supply Leadership", Journal of Purchasing & Supply Management, 15(1): 51 - 62.

Keywords: Purchasing; Supply chain management; Supply chain responsibilities; Leadership; Organizational structure change .

Abstract: The chief purchasing officer (CPO) plays a critical role in ensuring the supply function contributes effectively to organizational goals and strategies. Furthermore, the executive in the organization to whom the CPO reports, the executive report (ER), plays a vital role in breaking down corporate roadblocks, setting priorities and ensuring the proper profile for supply within the organization. This research focuses on supply leadership changes in which an incumbent CPO is replaced and/or the CPO reporting line is changed. Using a case-based methodology in 30 large North American and European organizations a total of 41 CPO replacements and 43 reporting line changes were documented. Data collection and analysis covered drivers, CPO background, key decision makers and tenure for both the outgoing and incoming CPOs and reporting line. The potential implications of these research findings for supply executives are discussed along with opportunities for future research.


Van Jaarsveld, D., Kwon, H., Frost, A.C., 2009, "The Effects of Institutional and Organizational Characteristics on Work Force Flexibility: Evidence from Call Centers in Three Liberal Market Economies", Industrial and Labor Relations Review, 62(4): 573 - 601.

Abstract: This comparative study examines survey data from 464 call centers ill the United States, 167 in the United Kingdom, and 387 in Canada to explore two questions: whether institutional differences shape employers' choices of ways to improve work force flexibility, both numerical and functional; and Whether Strategies for numerical flexibility and functional flexibility are related. The results suggest that institutional differences across these liberal market economies-specifically, in dismissal regulations and union strength-did affect: how employers chose to achieve work force flexibility. For example, the use of part-time workers was more common in countries with more stringent rules regulating dismissals. Organizational characteristics also mattered, with outsourced firms being more likely than in-house firms to use part-time workers. Evidence also suggests that managers used numerical flexibility and functional flexibility Strategies as Substitutes: higher employee job discretion was associated with both lower dismissal rates and a lower likelihood of temporary use.


Johnson, P.F., Leenders, M.R., 2008, "Building a Corporate Supply Function", Journal of Supply Chain Management, 44(3): 39 - 52.

Keywords: Organizational structure change; Purchasing; Supply chain management; Contingency theory.

Abstract : The chief purchasing officer (CPO) plays a critical role in ensuring supply contributes effectively to organizational goals and strategies. The selection of the individual who will become the company's first CPO is especially important. A reporting line establishment occurs at the same time as an appointment of a first CPO when a large organization centralizes a previously decentralized supply function. Using case-based methodology, this research in large North American and European organizations examined 26 appointments of the first CPO and corresponding reporting line establishments. Data collection and analysis covered six aspects: drivers, CPO background, reporting line, the key decision makers and influencers involved in the decision, tenure of the first CPO and tenure of the first reporting line. It was found that changes in corporate strategy accounted for nearly 80 percent of the first CPO appointments and the CEO had a major say in decisions related to who would be hired as the first CPO as well as his or her reporting line. Almost 30 percent of internally recruited CPOs did not have any supply experience. However, externally recruited CPOs always had supply experience, but did not necessarily come from a CPO position. The CPOs reported to a variety of different positions, with the CEO and VP shared services being the most popular. The average tenure for the first CPO was more than one year longer than his or her reporting line. The potential implications for supply executives are explored. Opportunities for future research are also identified.


Prime, J., Jonsen, K., Carter, N., Maznevski, M.L., 2008, "Managers’ perceptions of women and men leaders: A cross cultural comparison", International Journal of Cross Cultural Management, 8(2): 171 - 210.

Abstract: We examined perceptions of managers from four Western European cultural groups about women's and men's leadership. Participants from every cultural group perceived reliable gender-based differences in leadership effectiveness. While some stereotypes varied across cultures, stereotyping patterns were more often linked to participants' gender than to their cultural beliefs. Unexpectedly, gender stereotypes of leaders were least prevalent among Latin respondents compared to those from more egalitarian cultures. In the Nordic and Anglo groups, male participants' stereotypes disparaged women's performance at the most valued leadership competencies. The implications for women's leadership advancement in these different cultural contexts are discussed.


Bell, P.C., Chen, J., 2006, "Cutting Costs or Enhancing Revenues? An Example of a Multi-product Firm with Impatient Customers Illustrates an Important Choice Facing Operational Researchers", Journal of the Operational Research Society, 57(4): 443 - 449.

Keywords: Manufacturing; Revenue management; Multi-product; Pricing; Market segmentation.

Abstract : A new dilemma facing the operational researcher with limited resources is, whether to continue the traditional focus on improving the efficiency of the firm or to focus instead on improving the revenue side of the firm's income statement. In this article, we examine this decision using a model of a firm that was published in this journal by Levin et al. We use this model, as applied to a UK-based multi-product manufacturer of wooden furniture, to illustrate the dramatic revenue and profit gains potentially available by applying revenue management concepts in a manufacturing environment.


Delios, A., Beamish, P.W., 2005, "Regional and Global Strategies of Japanese Firms", Management International Review, 45(1): 19 - 36. Reprinted in A. Rugman and A. Verbeke (eds.) 2004, The Limits to Globalization and the Regional Strategies of Multinational Enterprises, Springer, Wiesbaden.

Keywords: Internationalization; Globalization; Multinationality; Internalization theory; Regional strategy; Japan.

Abstract: Our evidence from the analysis 1,229 Japanese multinational firms shows notable differences in the components of an internationalization strategy by the type of global and regional strategy employed. This evidence suggests that a host-oriented, but not a home-oriented, strategy is a step in the direction of a global strategy in a manner consistent with existing internationalization, internalization and global strategic management views of multinational firms.


Foerster, S.R., Sapp, S., 2005, "Valuation of Financial Versus Non-Financial Firms: A Global Perspective", Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions & Money, 15(1): 1 - 20.

Keywords: Interest rates; Financial institutions; Asset pricing; Empirical testing.

Abstract: It is common practice in many empirical studies in finance to exclude financial services firms from the samples used in different stages of the analysis. In this paper we analyze the impact of this exclusion on common asset pricing tests by comparing the results using data both including and excluding financial sector firms in the countries with the largest financial sectors (the G7 countries plus the Netherlands and Switzerland) over the 1973 to 2000 period. We find that excluding financial service firms from empirical asset pricing tests can impact the corresponding inferences. It may influence both the identification of the number of risk factors found to be significant and the corresponding betas. For example, the estimated coefficients on some factors are significantly negative for the financials and significantly positive for many of the non-financials. We also show that, using a Fama-MacBeth (1973) test procedure, we fail to reject some models when financial firms are included in tests, but reject the same models when financials are excluded. Consequently we suggest researchers recognize the possible impact of the industry composition of the portfolios used in empirical studies.


King, M.R., 2005, "Epistemic Communities and the Diffusion of Ideas: Central Bank Reform in the United Kingdom", West European Politics, 28(1): 94 - 123.

Abstract: In May 1997 the incoming Labour government gave the Bank of England operational independence in the setting of interest rates. This reform is puzzling as it was introduced by a party whose roots lie with the trade union movement, and resisted by the Conservatives whose political support comes largely from business, the financial sector and homeowners who stand to benefit most from price stability. Economic ideas are central to explaining the outcome. The Labour Chancellor was convinced by an epistemic community of monetary experts that central bank independence would achieve New Labour's electoral goals. These political incentives were absent for the Conservatives, who preferred to set interest rates strategically to increase their popularity with voters.


Johnson, P.F., Leenders, M.R., 2003, "Gaining and Losing Pieces of the Supply Chain", Journal of Supply Chain Management, 39(1): 27 - 39.

Abstract: This research focused on changes in supply chain responsibilities. The primary research question was: What are the reasons (drivers) for major changes in supply chain responsibilities? Over 200 such changes, comprising 158 additions and 44 deletions, were documented in the research. The findings are based on 10 case studies in large multi-business unit companies, seven headquartered in the United States and three in Europe, representing a variety of industries. Findings indicated three drivers of change for supply chain responsibilities. The chief purchasing officer and his or her staff members had a great deal of influence, particularly in additions to category 1 (acquisition of specific organizational needs) and category 2 (activities within the total supply chain).


Branzei, O., 2002, "Cultural Explanations of Individual Preferences for Influence Tactics in Cross-Cultural Encounters", International Journal of Cross Cultural Management, 2(2): 203 - 218.

Keywords: Cross cultural influence attempts; Gender; Influence goals; Influence tactics; National culture.

Abstract: This study explored if, and how, cultural values affected the types of organizational goals pursued in work-related influence attempts, and which influence tactics were used to achieve these goals. A scenario-based field study of 223 part-time MBAs from three countries - the United States, Romania, and Japan - showed that similar organizational goals were sought in these countries in upward, lateral, and downward influence attempts. In general, respondents preferred using rational explanations, inspirational appeals, and consultation tactics, and disliked using pressure tactics. In simulated work situations, respondents' choices of influence tactics differed, depending on their cultural values. National culture had a significant influence on ingratiation, exchange, personal appeals, and coalition tactics. Within each culture, gender had a significant influence on ingratiation tactics, and the type of organizational goal pursued had a significant influence on rational explanation, inspirational appeals, consultation, and ingratiation tactics.


Maznevski, M.L., Distefano, J.J., Gomez, C.B., Noorderhaven,, N.G., Wu, P.-C., 2002, "Cultural Dimensions at the Individual Level of Analysis: The Cultural Orientations Framework.", International Journal of Cross Cultural Management, 2(3): 275 - 295.

Abstract: This article describes a theoretically-grounded framework of cultural dimensions conceptualized and operationalized at the individual level of analysis, based on the work of anthropologists Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck. We present empirical data gathered from five countries - Canada, Mexico, the Netherlands, Taiwan, and the United States - to assess the validity of the framework. We then use the results to explore how the cultural orientations framework can add insight and new perspectives to critical questions in cross cultural management research.


Parker, S.C., 2002, "Do Banks Ration Credit to New Enterprises? And Should Governments Intervene?", Scottish Journal of Political Economy, 2(49): 162 - 195.

Abstract: Do banks deny credit to new start-ups? The presumption that they do has motivated government intervention in several forms, including publicly backed loan guarantee schemes in the UK and elsewhere. This paper presents an overview of the modern theory and evidence of credit rationing, and concludes that the case for credit rationing is weak. Ultimately, theoretical arguments for or against credit rationing are inconclusive, so evidence is needed to decide the issue. The evidence is not supportive of the view that credit rationing is an important or widespread phenomenon.


Fey, C., Beamish, P.W., 2001, "Organizational Climate Similarity and Performance: International Joint Ventures in Russia", Organization Studies, 22(5): 853 - 882.

Keywords: Emerging markets; Joint ventures; Organizational climate; Russia; Performance.

Abstract: This study examines how organizational climate dissimilarity between parent firms and the joint venture (JVI) affects joint venture performance. Data are obtained from interviews with the general manager of 40 IJVs and questionnaires completed by top-level managers from both parents and the JVO (6 people /IJV). Results indicate that to have the best chance at success, it is important for a firm starting a joint venture to select a partner with an organizational climate similar to its own. Results also indicate that it is important to create an organizational climate at the JVO that is similar to the foreign parent's organizational climate.


Bansal, P., Roth, K., 2000, "Why Companies Go Green: A Model of Corporate Ecological Responsiveness", Academy of Management Journal, 43(4): 717 - 736.

Keywords: Corporate responsibility; Ecology; Natural environment; Environmental policies.

Abstract: Researchers conducted a qualitative study of the motivations and contextual factors that induce corporate ecological responsiveness. Analytic induction applied to data collected from 53 firms in the UK and Japan revealed 3 motivations: 1. competitiveness, 2. legitimization, and 3. ecological responsibility. These motivations were influenced by 3 contextual conditions: field cohesion, issue salience, and individual concern. This paper also identifies the conditions that likely lead to high corporate ecological responsiveness.


Fey, C., Beamish, P.W., 2000, "Joint Venture Conflict: The Case of Russian International Joint Ventures", International Business Review, 9(2): 139 - 162. Reprinted in Russian in Personal-Mix, Jan 2001: 87-91.

Keywords: Emerging markets; Conflict; Joint ventures; Organizational climate; Russia.

Abstract: This paper investigates the importance of firms forming joint ventures having similar organizational climates such that the chances of inter-party conflict arising will be minimized. The study is based on 40 Russian international joint ventures (IJVs) and has both qualitative and quantitative elements. Support was provided for inter-party IJV conflict being an important outcome of IJV activity to monitor (and try to minimize) when evaluating IJV success. Further, evidence was presented to show that similar firms forming an IJV are more likely to have less conflict than more dissimilar firms.


Foerster, S.R., Karolyi, G.A., 2000, "The Long Run Performance of Global Equity Offerings", Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, 35(4): 499 - 528.

Keywords: Equity capital; American depositary receipts; Rates of return; International finance; Long term; Capital markets; Studies.

Abstract: We investigate the long-run return performance of non-US firms that raise equity capital in U.S. markets. Overall, between 1982 and 1996, our sample of 333 global equity offerings with U.S. depositary receipt (ADR) tranches from 35 countries in Asia, Latin America, and Europe under-perform local market benchmarks of comparable firms by 8%-15% over the three years following issuance. We show that differences in long-run returns are related to the scope and magnitude of investment barriers that induce segmentation of capital markets around the world. While companies from markets with significant investment barriers for foreigners that issue equity on major U.S. exchanges outperform their benchmarks, those from segmented markets that issue equity in the U.S. by way of Rule 144A private placements significantly under-perform. We also show that inter-market competition for order flow in the post isuance pursued affects long-run performance. Post-issuance buy-and-hold abnormal returns are most significantly and positively related to the offering's ability to generate a larger share of U.S. trading volume.


Fey, C., Beamish, P.W., 1999, "Strategies for Managing Russian International Joint Venture Conflict", European Management Journal, 17(1): 99 - 106.

Keywords: Emerging markets; Joint ventures; International; Conflict; Russia; Strategy.

Abstract: Based on an analysis of the experiences of 40 Russian IJVs, this study presents nine strategies for managing intra-IJV conflict such that it will have a minimal negative impact on IJV performance. Following the strategies suggested in this paper presents an opportunity for other Russian IJVs to learn from the experience of the IJVs in this study and thus avoid some of the problems that conflict can produce.


Meyer, R.C., Chase, R.B., Roth, A.V., Voss, C.A., Sperl, K.U., Menor, L.J., Blackmon, K., 1999, "Service Competitiveness -- An International Benchmarking Comparison of Service Practice and Performance in Germany, UK and USA", Journal of Service Management, 10(4): 369 - 379.

Keywords: Service operations; Benchmarking; Research.

Abstract: This paper provides a cross-country examination of service management practice and performance of service organizations in the UK, USA and Germany. The findings reported are based on a sample of firms from the international service study (ISS) from four service sectors: financial services, professional services, hotels, and utilities. The paper argues that generally there are differences in services management practices and performance and, more specifically, that service quality performance may be explained by the nature and market dynamics of the service sector within the individual countries.


Parker, S.C., Coleman, J., 1999, "Training in the UK: Does National Ownership Matter?", International Journal of Training and Development, 3(4): 278 - 291.

Abstract: We investigate whether UK-owned and foreign-owned firms operating in the UK differ with respect to the quality and quantity of training they perform. A simple theoretical model sets up the basis for the empirical analysis, which utilises the 1990 WIRS/EMSPS data set. It is found that, whereas the intensity of training does not seem to vary systematically with ownership, foreign-owned establishments train significantly more of their employees and seem to provide higher quality training than their UK-owned counterparts. It also appears that `poaching' of trained labour, which is fairly similar by ownership, is not regarded as a major problem by employers.


Klassen, R.D., Angell, L.C., 1998, "An International Comparison of Environmental Management in Operations: The Impact of Manufacturing Flexibility in the U.S. and Germany", Journal of Operations Management, 16(2-3): 177 - 194.

Keywords: Environmental issues; Empirical research; International issues.

Abstract: Pressures to improve environmental management in the U.S. and Germany are among the strongest in the world, demanding quick responsiveness from managers of manufacturing firms. However, even in these countries, the managerial implications of environmental regulation can vary dramatically. Our synthesis of related literatures indicates that manufacturing flexibility, by enabling efficient adaptation to change and uncertainty, can support environmental management. This paper empirically explores the linkage between flexibility and environmental management in the U.S. and Germany. Environmental management was operationalized along two dimensions: level of environmental ambition, defined as scope of environmental efforts; and level of regulatory-driven motivation. Survey data were collected from a sample of 218 U.S. and German manufacturing sites. Neither the probability of having a dedicated environmental department nor of having an environmental policy statement differed between countries; however, the impact of flexibility on the level of ambition was found to vary significantly between countries. One potential explanation is that command-and-control regulation of the manufacturing process is heavily emphasized in the U.S., while closed loop (recycling) regulation of final product disposition is predominant in Germany. Thus, manufacturing firms need to evaluate general regulatory differences between countries before using manufacturing flexibility to support environmental management. Future research needs to explore whether other operational capabilities, such as quality, also support environmental management across international contexts.


Parker, S.C., 1998, "Exchange Rate Misalignments and Adjustments: Implications for Floating and Fixed Parity Systems", Manchester School, 66(1): 44 - 58.

Abstract: We present a microeconomic efficiency cost framework for discriminating between fixed and floating exchange rate systems, and illustrate it with UK data over 1975-90. It is found that a fixed parity system would have been unambiguously preferred to a floating system over this period, unless the parity were set sufficiently non-centrally or costs from persistent currency overvaluation were sufficiently high. Under no circumstances could a floating parity have been unambiguously preferred to a fixed parity system.


Toren, N., Konrad, A.M., Yoshioka, I., Kashlak, R.J., 1997, "Managerial Task Preferences and Importance of Job Attributes: Are They Different for Women and Men? ", Women in Management Review, 12(6): 234 - 243.

Keywords: Gender; Leadership; Management Styles.

Abstract: Addresses the debate about gender-based leadership/management styles by examining and comparing managerial task preferences and rating of work characteristics of women and men in management positions in the USA, Japan, Australia, Israel and Italy. The findings do not support the notion that women have a distinct leadership style, e.g. that they are more people-oriented than men, or that they differ consistently in their evaluation of various job factors, such as extrinsic versus intrinsic components. However, country of origin has strong and pervasive effects on management style and orientation in these terms. Japanese managers are markedly different from those in other countries (they exhibit a so-called 'feminine' style), while the Americans and Israelis resemble each other. The findings sustain the argument that managerial style is not mainly determined by gender but rather by contextual factors, such as national culture, organization and occupation.


Beamish, P.W., 1996, "European Foreign Investment: Why Go To Canada?", European Management Journal, 14(1): 76 - 80.

Keywords: Foreign investment: Canada; Environmental analysis; Europe; International.

Abstract: With data from some 200 Canadian and European business or government representatives, this article sets out the case for European investment in Canada. It employs the PEST (political, economic, social and technological) framework for this environmental analysis and, although it has encouraging conclusions, points out that investment opportunities may vary in time and place, and that Canada is regionally diverse.


Nitsch, D., Beamish, P.W., Makino, S., 1996, "Entry Mode and Performance of Japanese FDI in Western Europe", Management International Review, 36(1): 27 - 43.

Keywords: Success; Subsidiaries; Studies; Market entry; Joint ventures; Foreign investment; Business ownership; Acquisitions & mergers; International.

Abstract: The performance of Japanese subsidiaries located in Europe is compared on the basis of the ownership-based entry modes of 173 subsidiaries in 1994. Theory predicts that greenfield, wholly-owned subsidiaries will perform best, followed by joint ventures and acquisitions. Performance data at the subsidiary level provide strong evidence of poorer performance by acquisitions versus the other 2 modes. The transaction cost approach is adopted in analyzing the relative performance of ownership-based foreign entry modes.


Nitsch, D., Beamish, P.W., Makino, S., 1995, "The Characteristics and Performance of Japanese Foreign Direct Investment in Europe", European Management Journal, 13(3): 276 - 285.

Keywords: Subsidiary; Performance; International; FDI; Entry mode; Joint ventures; Greenfield; Europe; Japan.

Abstract: This article provides an illuminating presentation of the characteristics and performance of 118 Japanese subsidiaries in Europe. Performance of the subsidiary is considered in relation to the initial mode of entry, industry and country of entry, subsidiary size, and reasons for entering. Japanese investment in Europe grew significantly in the late 1980s, but was heavily concentrated in a few industries. Entry mode preferences have also shifted, away from greenfield start-ups to more use of joint ventures. Conclusions are of interest to European and non-European corporate managers, and public policy-makers.


McLellan, K., Beamish, P.W., 1994, "The New Frontier for Information Technology Outsourcing: International Banking", European Management Journal, 12(2): 210 - 215.

Keywords: Trends; Outsourcing; International banking; Information technology.

Abstract: Two international banking challenges will provide the future growth and rationale for information technology (IT) outsourcing in the financial sector. The first challenge is the multi-faceted risk associated with cross-border financial flows. Institutions are attempting to manage long-term risk through the use of financial derivative products. However, most short-term risk relates to structural or settlement system shortcomings, and individual institutions have few risk management tools. The 2nd challenge involves the difficulty of developing truly global full-service financial firms. National regulations remain the major obstacle to foreign direct investment. Yet de-regulation, particularly within Europe and North America, has highlighted the difficulty of developing critical mass within fragmented national financial sectors. IT outsourcing could be a powerful tool in addressing these challenges.


Beamish, P.W., Craig, R., McLellan, K., 1993, "The Performance Characteristics of Canadian versus U.K. Exporters in Small and Medium Sized Firms", Management International Review, 33(2): 121 - 137.

Keywords : Exporting; SMEs; Performance; Distribution; Diversification; International.

Abstract: This paper compares the performance characteristics of a sample of 106 small and medium sized firms U.K. exporters with comparable data from 91 Canadian exporters. Successful export performance for firms in both countries was linked to application of business fundamentals such as customer service and the setting of planned market objectives. There were differences however. Successful U.K. export performance was related to the use of direct sales distribution, wide product offerings, long term distributor relations and a broad geographic market focus. Canadian firm's export performance was related to superior product characteristics and diversification of market focus.


Klassen, R.D., Greis, N.P., 1993, "Managing Environmental Improvement through Product and Process Innovation: Implications of Environmental Life Cycle Assessment", Industrial & Environmental Crisis Quarterly, 7(4): 293 - 318.

Keywords: Product design; Process design; Environmental management; Manufacturing.

Abstract: Environmental life-cycle assessment (LCA) is being developed by a number of organizations world-wide as a preventative and improvement strategy for managing the environmental burden of product manufacture. The growing international emphasis on LCA has significant strategic implications for the R&D and manufacturing functions - particularly the management of product and process innovation. This paper explores the basic definition and objectives of LCA by comparing alternative frameworks being developed by the international community of U.S., Canadian and European organizations. This review serves three important purposes: first, the discussion identifies critical issues and implications for technology managers; second, the analysis explores the international differences for manufacturers producing for global markets; and finally, this research establishes the basis for a decision framework to manage environmental improvement through product and process innovation. This decision framework, based on the length of the product's useful life, summarizes the preferred option for manufacturers seeking to improve the environmental compatibility of their products and to reduce the environmental burden of their manufacturing operations.


Beamish, P.W., 1992, "Russki Adventures", European Management Journal, 10(4): 465 - 476.

Keywords: Recreation; Market positioning; Joint ventures; Financial analysis; Entertainment industry; Case studies; International; Emerging markets.

Abstract: Guy Crevasse and Andrei Kakov, the 2 major partners in Russki Adventures, explored the possibility of starting a helicopter skiing operation in Russia. Their plan was to bring clients from Europe, North America, and Japan to the Caucasus Mountains to ski the vast areas of secluded mountain terrain made accessible by the use of helicopters and the business opportunities offered by glasnost. There were 3 options for proceeding being considered. The first was to proceed with the venture on their own in the Caucasus Mountains area, made available to them by a Soviet government agency. The second was to accept a partnership offer with Extreme Dreams, a French tour operator that had begun operations in the Caucasus region. The final option was to not proceed with the venture. A study of the venture includes information on: 1. the company founders, 2. the helicopter skiing industry, 3. the Russian environment, 4. the proposed market positioning of the business, 5. the potential alliance partners, and 6. financial analysis forecasts under several scenarios.


Craig, R., Beamish, P.W., 1989, "A Comparison of the Characteristics of Canadian & U.K. Exporters by Firm Size", Journal of Global Marketing, 2(4): 49 - 63.

Keywords: Exporting; Diversification; Internationalization; Canada; UK.

Abstract: As part of an ongoing study aimed at investigating the determinants of successful export management, this paper compares characteristics of a new sample of 126 small, medium, and large English exporters with comparable data from 116 Canadian exporters. U.K exporters sold to more countries, had been selling longer, and had a wider product line than corresponding Canadian exporters. Canadian firms concentrated on the U.S. market, had been experiencing a greater increase in export sales, and were more likely to have greater profits in the export market than the domestic market.


Geringer, J.M., Beamish, P.W., da Costa, R., 1989, "Diversification Strategy and Internationalization: Implications of MNE Performance", Strategic Management Journal, 10(2): 109 - 119.

Keywords: Internationalization; Diversification; Performance.

Abstract: This study examines potential explanations for performance differences among multinational enterprises (MNEs). The research variables, diversification strategy and degree of internationalization, involve basic elements of firms' strategy: range and relatedness of products, and relative emphasis on foreign versus domestic operations. The sample included the 100 largest MNEs from the U.S. and Europe. Diversification strategy was significantly related to MNE performance, extending Rumelt's seminal research to international business. Degree of internationalization was also significantly related to MNE performance.


Schaan, J-L., 1988, "How to Control a Joint Venture Even as a Minority Partner", Journal of General Management, 14(1): 4 - 16.

Keywords: Success; Objectives; Minority interests; Management audits; Joint ventures; Expectations; Controls; Conflict.

Abstract: Based on the experience of 23 joint ventures operating mainly in North America, Mexico, and Europe, successful and less successful joint ventures are compared. To ensure joint-venture success, managers seek to maintain a subtle balance between the desire and need to control the venture and the need to have harmonious relations with the partners. A number of mechanisms can be employed to enable all interested parties to monitor developments and shape decisions that affect the joint venture: 1. board meetings, 2. provision of parent company services, 3. key personnel appointments, 4. organizational and structural context, 5. informal mechanisms, and 6. integrating the parent organizations. Even in a minority situation, a series of measures are recommended to enhance the likelihood of successful control. They include: 1. policies governing parental intervention, 2. diplomacy, 3. governance of the manager, 4. formal assessments, and 5. arrangements for resolving disagreements.


Bell, P.C., O'Keefe, R., 1987, "Visual Interactive Simulation - History, recent developments, and major issues", Simulation - Transactions of the Society for Modelling and Simulation International, 49(3): 109 - 116.

Keywords: Animation; Discrete simulation; Interactive programs; Transportation.

Abstract: Visual Interactive Simulation (VIS) has dominated discrete-event simulation in the United Kingdom throughout the eighties. Conceived and initially implemented by Hurrion (1976), who also coined the phrase, VIS first gained widespread exposure through the package SEE-WHY. The ideas behind VIS are fundamentally different from what is referred to in the United States as animation, since the prime motivator is user interaction with the running simulation, rather then just portrayal of the simulation. After presenting a short history of VIS, we will discuss some of the research and development that has been undertaken in the United Kingdom and North America. Following presentation of an example, the state of VIS and a number of generally accepted guidelines for doing VIS are discussed. A number of recent developments, many of them also relevant to animation, and four major issues in the research and practice of VIS are presented.


Non-Refereed Articles

Beamish, P.W., 2007, "Invited Commentary on 'Majestica' Case", Modern Weekly, April (14), in Chinese, B33.

Keywords: Control systems; Corporate culture; Negotiation; Market entry; Emerging markets.

Abstract: Majestica Hotels Inc., a leading European operator of luxury hotels, was trying to reach an agreement with Commercial Properties of Shanghai regarding the management contract for a new hotel in Shanghai. A series of issues require resolution for the deal to proceed, including length of contract term, name, staffing and many other control issues. Majestica was reluctant to make further concessions for fear that doing so might jeopardize its service culture, arguably the key success factor in this industry. At issue was whether Majestica should adopt a contingency approach and relax its operating philosophy, or stick to its principles, even if it meant not entering a lucrative market.


Dawar, N., 1997, "Local Brands Face Uphill Fight Against Multinationals", Globe and Mail, Managing for Success Series: 5 - 5.

Keywords: Emerging markets; Competition; Branding; Economies of scale; Multinationals.

Abstract: Local firms, accustomed to protection, are often caught unaware by the entry of powerful international mega-brands that are backed by enormous resources, technological capabilities and global marketing experience. However, many local brands manage to defend themselves against the onslaught of powerful multinationals. This article explores the two methods such small firms use: exploiting local knowledge and going international.

The market positioning of global brands is defined and relatively inflexible. Local brands are thus better able to launch line-extensions and new brands that specifically cater to emerging trends. Local firms can thus leverage knowledge of the local market to act quicker and capture share more effectively. The author uses examples such as the computer industry in Russia to illustrate the effectiveness of exploiting local knowledge.

Local firms that produce at a quality similar to that of international firms and still retain their price advantage, stand a chance of being globally competitive. While brand building is one method of developing presence in the international market, other more unique opportunities are appearing. For instance, many retailers have developed their own brands and source material internationally, opening up markets for international manufacturers. Contracts with such retailers would allow local firms to build an effective international presence and threaten the very multinationals that make the competitive landscape intense in their home towns. The private-label approach provides economies of scale without the costs and risks associated with brand building. Furthermore, because of stringent quality requirements, local manufacturers are being forced to upgrade quality providing them with competitive advantages and valuable experiences that can be used back home.


Calof, J., Beamish, P.W., 1994, "The Right Attitude for International Success", Ivey Business Quarterly, 59(1): 105-110.

Abstract: International business success: most companies need it, federal governments want more firms to have it, and managers are trying to figure out how to get it. For many small and large companies, survival depends on enhancing international success. While there are many factors that influence such success, one of the most important is managements' international business attitude. The impact of attitudes on international performance is so great that some theorists have suggested that future international management research should focus almost exclusively on it. The paper examined the relationship between centricity (defined as a person's attitude toward foreign cultures) and international performance in a sample of 38 firms. The firms whose senior executives responsible for international decisions possessed a geocentric mind set had international sales at a level twice that for firms when the senior executives possessed other attitudes. (A short centricity assessment form is included in the paper.)



Bartlett, C.A., Beamish, P.W., 2018, "Transnational Management: Text and Cases”, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, Forthcoming January 2018.

Abstract : Transnational Management focuses on the management challenges associated with developing strategies and managing the operations of companies whose activities stretch across national boundaries. The purpose of this book is to provide a conceptual framework showing the interplay between the multinational corporation, the countries in which it does business, and the competitive environment in which it operates. Through text narrative, cases, and readings, the authors examine the development of strategy, organizational capabilities, and management challenges for operating in the global economy. This book contains 8 chapters and 27 cases. Many focus on Europe.


Beamish, Paul W. (ed), 2015, "Cases in Strategic Management", 11th, Toronto, McGraw-Hill Ryerson.

Abstract: This book contains 38 cases, divided into 12 sections. A number focus on Europe.


Ryans, A.B., More, R.A., Barclay, D.W., Deutscher, T.H., 2000, Winning Market Leadership, Toronto: John Wiley & Sons.

Keywords: Emerging markets.

Abstract: Winning Market Leadership is targeted at executives and managers in companies competing in dynamic, highly competitive industries, such as computers, telecommunications, software, biotechnology, semiconductors, instruments, pharmaceuticals and advanced materials. These individuals play key roles in developing strategic market plans for their businesses. The book provides a systematic and highly integrated process for evaluating market opportunities and for developing strategies to win market leadership in chosen opportunities. It focuses on the key issues and tough choices faced by executives in these very demanding technology-intensive markets. Most of the examples in the book are drawn from the experiences of high technology companies, such as Intel, Compaq, Hewlett-Packard, Glaxo-Welcome, and General Electric. The book emerged from project-based executive programs developed for corporate clients such as IBM, Nortel Networks, National Semiconductor and General Electric. The process has been developed and tested with close to a thousand managers and executives in North America, Europe and Asia, who have brought strategic opportunities to these programs.


Beamish, P.W., Killing, J.P. (eds.), 1997, Cooperative Strategies: European Perspectives, San Francisco: The New Lexington Press.

Abstract: This is one of three geographically targeted volumes in The Cooperative Strategies Series. The series explores the extent, nature, operations, and environment of cross-border cooperative linkages in the North American, European, and Asian Pacific regions. The series investigates the magnitude, nature, operations and environments of new global cooperative business arrangements such as joint ventures, strategic alliances, research and development partnerships, consortia, technology transfers and licensing, management service, franchising, and cross-manufacturing agreements. This volume is grouped into the four categories listed below and all parts of Europe are represented.


1. An Economic Model of International Joint Venture Strategy (Peter J. Buckley and Mark Casson)
2. A Knowledge-Based View of Cooperative Interorganizational Relationships (Chong Ju Choi and Soo Hee Lee)
3. Black-Box Protection of Your Core Competencies in Strategic Alliances (Peter Lorange)
4. Managing International Joint Ventures: An Institutional Approach (Yuan Lu and David Lake)


5. Improving Joint Venture Performance Through Congruent Measures of Success (Paul W. Beamish and Andrew Delios)
6. An Electric Model of the Choice Between Wholly Owned Subsidiaries and Joint Ventures as Modes of Foreign Entry (John H.J. Bell, Harry G. Barkema, and Alain Verbeke)
7. Stability and Satisfaction in Cooperative FDI: Partnerships in Turkey (Deniz Erden)
8.Strategic and Organizational Issues in International Joint Ventures in Moscow (Stephen Tallman, Adam G. Sutcliffe, and Boris A. Antonian)


9. Veracity and Commitment: Cooperative Behaviour in First-Time Collaborative Ventures (Africa Ariño)
10. Business Networks and Cooperation in International Business Relationships (Desirée Blankenburg Holm, Kent Eriksson, and Jan Johanson)
11. Cooperative Approaches to Strategic Competitiveness Through MNE Subsidiaries: Insiders and Outsiders in the European Market (Marina Papanastassiou and Robert Pearce)
12. Legitimacy: An Analysis of Three Hungarian-Western European Collaborations (Jone L. Pearce and Imre Branyiczki)


13. Knowledge Acquisition from Foreign Parents in International Joint Ventures: An Empirical Examination in the Hungarian Context (Marjorie A. Lyles and Jane E. Salk)
14. Can Market-Based Contracts Substitute for Alliances in High-Technology Markets? (Markus Nordberg, Alexandra J. Campbell, and Alain Verbeke)



Beamish, P.W., Lu, J., 2004, “Japanese Perspectives of International Entrepreneurship”, in L.Dana (ed), Handbook of Research on International Entrepreneurship, Cheltenham, UK, Edward Elgar, pg. 512-532. Reprinted as “Japan” in L.Dana, M. Han, V. Ratten, and I. Welpe (eds), Handbook of Research on Asian Entrepreneurship, Cheltenham, UK, Edward Elgar, pg. 122-138 (2009).

Abstract: This paper provides an analysis of the characteristics and performance of Japanese SME's internationalization based on a sample of 1118 foreign direct investments made by 221 Japanese SMEs over the 1964-9 period. Japanese SMEs' internationalization had a steady but slow increase through the 1970s and the first half of the 1980s, followed by a rapid surge in the late 1980s. Subsidiary age was the lowest in the services, construction and finance, insurance and real estate sectors, and in Asia, Europe and Africa/Middle East where the majority of entries were made in the 1990s. Manufacturing had the highest mean number of employees. Control by the Japanese in terms of both equity ownership and percentage of Japanese expatriates was highest in the wholesale trade and finance, insurance and real estate sectors. There was no significant relationship between either sector and performance or location and performance. We observed a positive relationship between subsidiary age and performance, a positive relationship between subsidiary size and performance, and a negative relationship between Japanese control and performance.


Beamish, P.W., Delios, A., 2001, “Japanese Investment in Transitional Economies: Characteristics and Performance” in D. Denison (ed.), Managing Organizational Change in Transition Economies, New Jersey, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, pg. 71-92.

Abstract: This paper presents and analyzes comparative data on 2,343 foreign-owned organizations operating in the transitional economies of China, Viet Nam and the countries of Central and Eastern Europe (CEE). It compares the extent, sectoral distribution, characteristics and performance of Japanese subsidiaries established in these three regions. Among the three, most Japanese investment has flowed to China where subsidiary performance was highest and where subsidiaries were concentrated in the manufacturing sector. Further, the employment levels of expatriate managers, and the propensity to engage in joint ventures, were higher in China and Viet Nam. The tighter linkages between domestic and foreign organizations, and the greater incidence of investment, provided more significant opportunities and scope for the transfer of organizational practices, and change, in domestic incumbents in China and Viet Nam than in the CEE.


Beamish, P.W., Nitsch, D., 1999, “A Longitudinal Analysis of Entry Mode and Performance of Japanese Investment in Europe” in J. Engelhard and W. A. Oechsler, (eds.), International Management: Effects of Global Changes on Competition, Corporate Strategies and Markets, Gabler Verlag, pg. 156-171.

Abstract: An analysis of 244 Japanese-owned manufacturing subsidiaries in Europe reveals no statistically significant differences in performance between wholly-owned greenfield, joint venture, and acquisition entry modes. This is an unexpected result since previous research, including a paper we published which used two earlier (1992 and 1994) data compilations from the same source, demonstrated that entry mode has an influence on performance. Rather than reject the transactions-cost reasoning on which the hypotheses are based, possible explanations are put forward for the failure to find a significant effect. These are: 1) limitations of the ordinal-scaled performance measure; 2) other effects on performance, most notably changing economic conditions; and 3) a survival effect manifested principally in the acquisition mode.


Hébert, L., Beamish, P.W., 1997, “The Characteristics of Canada-Based International Joint Ventures”, in Paul W. Beamish and J. Peter Killing, (eds.) Cooperative Strategies: North American Perspectives, San Francisco, The New Lexington Press, pg. 403-427.

Abstract: This paper investigates foreign investment in Canada using joint ventures. It reviews selected characteristics of these international joint ventures (IJVs), with the objective to provide insights on the relationships linking the strategic motivations, structure and performance of these organizations. Among others, this paper shows that IJVs are formed to speed up market entry, involve generally 50/50 equity split and exhibit relatively high performance rates. Furthermore, several differences were noticed in the IJV strategy of European firms compared to American ones.


Schaan, J-L., Beamish, P.W., 1988, “Joint Venture General Managers in Developing Countries” in Farok Contractor and Peter Lorange (eds.), Cooperative Strategies in International Business, Lexington, MA:  Lexington Books, D.C. Heath & Co., pg. 279-299.

Abstract: This chapter analyzes the unique features of joint venture general management in less developed countries LDCs. It begins with the identification and discussion of the major pressures that determine the JVGM's strategic and operating context. It then examines how JVGMs respond to those pressures. The chapter concludes with a discussion of the implications of the study's findings for JVGMs, managers in parent organizations, and researchers. This research is derived from two larger studies conducted by the authors (Schaan 1983; Beamish 1984) which involved in total nearly 75 joint ventures in LDCs. Schaan conducted 39 personal interviews in 4 countries - Canada, Mexico, the United States, and France. Beamish conducted 46 interviews in Canada, the United States, Great Britain, and two Caribbean nations. Questionnaires were used in some instances to supplement the interview observations.



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